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\\.L%L REPORT 



ON THE 



IGRATION Ql;'' JJIEDS 



FOURTH REPORT, 1882 



LONDON: 
MINTED BY WEST, NEWMAN & CO., 54, HATTON GARDEN 

1883. 



Price T\\'o Shi4litigs. 



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REPORT 



ON THE 



MIGRATION OF BIRDS 



IN THE 



SPEING AND AUTUMN OF 1882. 



BY 



Mr. JOHN A. HAKVIE BEOWN, Mr. JOHN COKDEAUX, 
Mr. R. M. BAREINGTON and Mr. A. G. MORE. 



'* It is much to be wished that some of the light-keepers of our lighthouses would 
make notes of their observations concerning seals, whales, birds, fishes, and other 
animals. Such records would be valuable ; and might not some of them occupy 
their leisure hours in the study of Natural History ? . . . . Interesting observations 
would then certainly be made, and new facts added to our stores of knowledge." — 
' Chambers' Journal,' p. 831 ; Dec. 23, 1876. 



LONDON: 
PRINTED BY WEST, NEWMAN & CO., 54, HATTON GARDEN. 

1883. 



{East Coast of Scotland, p. 1.) 

" Whither, midst faUing dew, 
While gZow the heavens with the last steps of day, 
Far, through their rosy depths, dost thou pursue 

Thy soHtary way ? 

» » « « 

Seek'st thou the plashy brink 
Of weedy lake, or marge of river wide, 
Or where the rocking billows rise and sink 

On the chafed ocean's side ? 

* * » « 

All day thy wings have fanned 
At that far height, the cold, thin, atmosphere. 
Yet stoop not, weary, to the welcome land, 
Though the dark night is near." 

CuLLEN Bryant. 



{East Coast of England, p. 27.) 

♦' Wild birds that change 

Their season in the night, and wail their way 
From cloud to cloud," 



{West Coast of Scotland, p. 55.) 

Where the Northern Ocean in vast whirls 
Boils round the naked, melancholy Isles 

Of further Thule, 

* * » « 

Who can recount what transmigrations there 
Are annually made ? What nations come and go ? 
And how the Uving clouds arise. 
Infinite wings ! tiU all the plume- dart( air 
And rude resounding shore are one wild cry ? " 



{Irish Coast, p. 73.) 

*' Islets, so freshly fair. 

That never hath bird come nigh them, 
But from his course thro' air 

He has been won down by them." 



PREFACE. 



The following Eeport contains a summary of investiga- 
tions of a Committee, appointed by the British Association 
for the Advancement of Science, at Southampton, in 1882, 
to consist of Professor Newton, Mr. J. A. Harvie Brown, 
Mr. John Cordeaux, Mr. Philip M. C. Kermode, Mr. K. M. 
Barrington, and Mr. A. G. More, for the purpose of obtaining 
(with the consent of the Master and Elder Brethren of the 
Trinity House, the Commissioners of Northern Lights, and 
the Commissioners of Irish Lights) observations on the 
Migration of Birds at Lighthouses and Lightships, and of 
reporting upon the same at Southport in 1883. Mr. 
Cordeaux to be the Secretary. 

An abstract of the Eeport was read by Mr. John Cordeaux 
at the Meeting of the Association, held at Southport, in 
September, 1883. 

The returns relating to Scotland have been arranged by 
Mr. J. A. Harvie Brown ; for the East Coast of England, 
by Mr. Cordeaux ; and those for the Coasts of Ireland, by 
Mr. R. M. Barrington and Mr. A. G. More. 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

East Coast of Scotland 1 



East Coast of England 27 

West Coast of Scotland 55 

Irish Coast 73 



FOUETH KEPOET: 

4 ON 

THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS 



IN THE 



I 



SPKING AND AUTUMN OF 1882. 



EAST COAST OF SCOTLAND, &c. 

Faeoe. — From Faroe, thanks to Herr Miiller, we have the 
following Eeport : — In spring one Recurvirostra avocettav^sis seen 
on May 30th, and two Arctic Terns on same day ; wind W., and 
sunshine. Of Anatidce, (Edemia nigra occurred on May 15th at 
Stromoe, and two, male and female, on 27th at same place. 
Two also, male and female, seen at same place in the plumage of 
the second year at Kalbat, Stromo, on June 2nd. In autumn, — 
i,e,, taking certain occurrences after the middle of June as 
"autumn manoeuvres," — of Turdidce, six or more Fieldfares 
were killed or seen at Thorshavn on Dec. 7th, easterly breezes 
having prevailed. Of PhylloscopincB, a rush of Hegidus cristatus 
appears to have taken place on Oct. 21st, as many were seen at 
Thorshavn and elsewhere, and dead ones brought to Herr 
Miiller. One dead Eobin was brought from Kollefjord, and 
several more had been seen on the same date. One Capiimulgiis 
europcEus was sent from Gauredal on June 16th. Loxia curvi- 
rostra appeared round Thorshavn for several days, and are 
recorded on June 29th, and again on July 9th, on which latter 
date those killed with stones at Toile were in good condition. 
One Common Swift was caught on board a fishing- smack mid- 



2 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

way between Iceland and Faroe, also on June 29th. One White 
Wagtail, Motacilla alba, appeared with N. wind on July 30th. 
One female Roller, Coracias garnila, was shot at Thorshavn on 
July 22nd, wind E., and one Pomatorhine Skua was seen on 
July 25th. One Woodcock was shot in Yaago, Sudero, during a 
S.E. storm, in clear weather ; and of Cygnidce, in all eleven — 
4 and 7 — Wild Swans flew past high in air from N.W. to S.E. 
on Nov. 5th. On Nov. 4th was N.E. wind, but on 5th N.W. and 
W. and shower3\ The prevailing winds at the Faroe Isles were 
easterly; in October, from the 7th to the end of the month, 
steady easterly and S.E. 

The ordinary papers, &c., were sent to thirty stations on the 
East Coast of Scotland, Faroe, and Iceland, as was done in 
1881. 

Twelve stations on this coast have returned filled-in schedules, 
— the same number as in 1881, — out of the twenty-six East 
Scotch stations. As formerly, many returns are light, but those 
from Isle of May, Pentland Skerries, and Sumburgh Head are 
fuller than before, again indicating favourite highway's of migra- 
tion. Bell Eock returns are also very full, but not so full as Isle 
of May nor Pentland Skerries. From Isle of May alone I have 
no less than nineteen schedules, and I have also to thank 
Mr. Agnew for a jar of forty-three specimens of birds, besides 
others sent me in the flesh or carbolised. At another time I 
intend to write more fully concerning the birds of the Isle of 
May, which is a locality of special interest to the student of 
migration.^' From the Pentland Skerries I have nine filled-in 
schedules, and from Sumburgh Head four ; from the Bell Rock 
three closely-filled schedules. 

Here follows the usual list of stations issued with each 
Report on the same j^lan as before, the dates of years upon 
which the various stations have sent in Reports being shown by 
asterisks. 

Our thanks are especially due to those observers who have 
noted, as far as possible, the directions of flight of the birds 

* I intend to present the collection of bii'ds foi*med on the Isle of 
May to that station, to lie there in the skin, and serve both to identify 
birds in future and to be of interest ,to visitors who annually visit the Isle 
of May. 



i 






EAST COAST OF SCOTLAND. 



noticed. If this were done at all the stations returning schedules 
it would in a marked degree assist our generalisations. 



1879, '80, 



'81, '82. 



^ ^ 



East Coast of Scotland. 



4. North Uist, Shetland 



230 ft. 



5. Whalsey Skerries, Shetland 145 ,, Nevin Kerr. 

6. Bressay, Shetland 105 ,, 

7. Sumburgh Head, Shetland 300 ,, J. Wilson. 
7b. Fair Isle ? 



^ * 



;!c ;!< 



Oekney. 

8. North Eonaldshay 

9. Start Point 

10. Auskerry 

11. Hoy Sound (Low) 

12. Hoy Sound (High) 

13. Cantick Head ... 

14. Pentland Skerries 



140 „ John Tulloch. 

80 „ 
110 ,, J. Macdonald. 

55 „ 
115 „ 
115,, 
170 „ D. MacDonald. 



Mainland. 

* 15. Dunnet Head, Caithness... 346 ,, 

16. Holborn Head, Caithness 75 ,, 

17. Noss Head, Caithness ... 175 ,, 

18. Tarbat Ness, East Eoss ... 175 ,, 

* 19. Cromarty, East Cromarty 60 ,, 

* 20. Chanonry Point, Elgui ... 40 ,, 
21. Covesea Skerries, Elgin ... 160 ,, 

(a) 22. Kinnaird Head, Aberdeen 120 ,, 

23. Buchan Ness, Aberdeen ... 130 ,, 

24. Girdleness, Aberdeen ... 185 ,, 

25. Montroseness, Aberdeen ... 124 ,, 
=i^ 26. Bell Book, Fife Coast ... 93 „ 
- 27. Isle of May, Firth of Forth 240 „ 

* 28. Inch Keith, Firth of Forth 220 „ 
29. St. Abbs Head, Berwicks. 224 „ 



D. Laidlaw. 



E. S. Eitson. 
John McGill. 

D. M Scott. 



"No birds." 
James Jack. 
J. Agnew. 
E. Grierson. 



It will be seen from the above that there is a long extent of 
coast-line whence I have scarcely received any returns since the 
beginning of the scheme, viz., in Aberdeenshire. Is this always 



(a) Describes a bird but no schedule. 



4 REPORT ON THK MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

due to actual scarcity of birds there, or to want of observing and 
recording ? I cannot tell, as I never receive any communications 
positive or negative from these stations, except from Girdleness, 
whence last year I had a brief return. At Montroseness scarcity 
of birds, indeed almost utter absence, is the reason of no returns 
in most years, and we can hardly ever expect much from it owing 
to its position — " So near the town and all the paraphernalia of 
commerce," as Mr. P. E. Reid, the lighthouse-keeper, informs 
me. He says, '' I have never been at a station where fewer birds 
come near the light ; not over half a dozen for the past year, and 
these were, we suspect. Gulls." At Nosshead, Mr. Alex. Greig, 
not knowing the names of some of the birds, thought it " better 
not to send in a report that would be incorrect"; but if he sends 
me in a report on those he does know the name of ; or some dates, 
and the winds prevailing at the time of great rushes of birds, 
without the names of the birds, such would be very useful. 
*' Small birds " or " large birds " have a value to me in recording, 
though the names are not given. That a migration was 
observable in 1882 at Nosshead is a fcictf obtained from Mr. 
Greig's reply to my post-card, and may prove a useful fact in 
arriving some day at conclusions. 

I fear it is not to be expected that we get any returns from 
the Whaling Captains, the arduous duties they are engaged in 
making them always too glad of complete rest when obtainable. 
Our thanks are due to Mr. T. Southwell, however, for speaking 
to some of them on the subject ; our. own application, by 
distributing circulars at Dundee with the assistance of Mr. P. 
Henderson, naturalist of that town, not having produced any 
results. 

I have received occasional notes from Mr. Anderson's log, 
through Mr. R. Gray (see Gannet, &c.). Mr. Anderson has 
again taken duty on an Atlantic Liner, after a temporary 
engagement in the Mediterranean, so we may hope to hear 
further of him and his observations.- 

As before, notes I have received from other sources besides 
the lighthouses I will enter after the paragraphs on each species 
or group. These are to be taken simply as corroborative evidence, 
or otherwise, of the lighthouse reports, or as supplementary to 
them. 

Notes have been kept upon about twenty-two species of Water- 



EAST COAST OF SCOTLAND. 5 

fowl, fifty-three sj)ecies of land birds, and about eight or ten 
species of littoral birds or waders, by our reporters on the East 
Coast. 

Spring Migration I have kept distinct in this Report. 

I have not given compiled notes on weather in this place this 
year, as all that requires to be said will be found under the 
treatment of the species, and a short paragraph under General 
Remarks. 

The whole space of time included by our 1882 returns runs 
from February in spring onwards, and in autumn from July to 
January 27th, 1883, the date of the last returned schedules. In 
the General Remarks I notice briefly the spring migration of 
1883— at Isle of May, &c. 

I visited this year Buchan Ness Lighthouse, on the Aberdeen- 
shire coast, and Mr. Andrew Gallic showed me a Manx Shear- 
water which he had found dead on the balcony in the winter of 
1879 — 80. Mr. Geo. Sim, who was with me at the time, told me 
it was the first he had ever had record of on the N.E. coast of 
Aberdeenshire. 

I visited also Cape Wrath Lighthouse. There, I was told, 
very few birds are ever seen at the lights, owing to its great 
height above the sea. 

TuRDiD^. — In spring, at Isle of May, March 2nd, after E. to 
S.E. gale for twenty-four hours, a few Redwings (accompanied by 
Lapwings, Reed Buntings, Rooks, and Hooded Crows among land 
birds, and Eider Duck, Teal, and Black Guillemots amongst 
water-birds). At same station, on April 8th and 19th, with E. 
winds. Redwings appeared ; and on April 15th and 28th, single 
specimens of Ring Ouzels, again with strong E. or N.E. winds 
(see Land Notes infra). In autumn, no records till September; 
then at Whalsey, N. Ronaldshay,,Auskerry, Pentland Skerries, 
Dunnet Head, Bell Rock, Isle of May (max.), from Sept. 20th, 
records on to Jan. 25th, 1883 — the last record at N. Ronaldshay. 
The earliest, Sept. 20th, was at Isle of May. All the species 
recorded occurred all throughout the season, viz., Fieldfares, 
Redwings, Missel Thrushes (min.). Common Thrushes (max.). 
Blackbirds ; but Fieldfares and Redwings also very abundant. 
Rushes, first at Auskerry and at N. Ronaldshay on Sept. 27th, 
and indications of the same also at Pentland Skerries and Isle of 



6 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

May. Numbers of Blackbirds, Thrushes, and Missel Thrushes 
frequented N. Ronaldshay for three days after this date. At the 
northern stations, wind strong S.E. ; at Isle of May, N.E. gale. A 
vast rush of many species took place, commencing on Oct. 8th, and 
continued till about the 18th in force at all the stations sending 
in returns, except Auskerry. We will speak fully of this move- 
ment in this place, and afterwards will refer back to it under 
other species. Migration general over whole coast-line. Wind 
during that time was N.E. to S.E. to E., with fog and rain; on 
the 16th S. at southern stations, and generally S.E. over all the 
coast. But at Pentland Skerries, mod. S. and S.W. on 10th, 
11th, and 13th. The rush here on 12th was, however, with 
S.S.E. fresh, and fog. At N. Eonaldshay, on 7th — 8th, numbers 
of Thrushes were seen coming from the S.E., and more continued 
coming till the 16th, all the time with strong S.E. wind. On 
16th wind changed to S., and all left. All stations send in 
heavy returns ; but the heaviest is from Isle of May, and 
hundreds were seen at Bell Rock on the l'2th — 14th. A desultory 
migration, with frequent rushes, was kept up all October ; also 
all November, the following dates bulking largest, viz., Nov. 5th, 
9th, 12th, 18th, and 27th, the northerly stations of Sumburgh 
Head and Pentland Skerries having during this month heavier 
returns on the whole than the more southerly ones. Wind during 
this time at Sumburgh Head fresh W., when fifty Redwings 
appeared on 5th. But at same place, light N.N.E. on 9th, when 
thirty Redwings were seen. On 27th, at same place, twenty-five 
Redwings were seen flying S.W., with wind fresh W. ; and at 
Isle of May, on 18th, several flocks of Fieldfares and Ring Ouzels 
— which usually appear here together — appeared with fresh S. 
breeze. All during the intermediate time between the above 
dates migration was carried on. In December the same con- 
tinued, but in diminishing numbers; and an indication of a 
small rush occurred between the 6th and 12th, but this appeai*ed 
to be greatly due to N.E. gales accompanied by snow-storms and 
severe frost on the mainland, causing local migration, as is partly 
evident from the species accompanying them, such as Larks, &c., 
and the exhausted and emaciated appearance, especially of the 
Redwings, even on the Isle of May. Between the 15th and 31st, 
at Auskerry, a great flock of Buntings was seen daily. In 
January large flocks were seen from 4th on to date of last entries 



EAST COAST OF SCOTLAND. 7 

in the schedules, and as late as 25th. Fieldfares at Pentland Sker- 
ries, where the most were seen on the 13th. At N. Konaldshay, 
also, many Blackbirds, Common Thrushes, and Missel Thrushes 
up to 24th, as already stated. Having detailed the movements, 
and given dates and circumstances of these rushes, I will now 
name the species which, along with Thrushes of various kinds, 
participated in the movement, and this may serve as indicating 
the general lines of 1882. During the September rush we shall 
have occasion to refer amongst others to the following species or 
groups of species : — Saxicolince (which began to move, however, 
as early as August), some Silviince (as Eobin, Whitethroat, &c.). 
Golden-crested Wrens snad Phylloscojnncs (end of August), Paridce, 
Motacillidce, Pied Flycatchers, Swallows, Fringillidce, Emherizidce, 
Alaudidce, as also references throughout to Hawks, Owls, Herons, 
and sea-birds. During the great October rush, between 8th and 
18th or 23rd, at the Isle of May, during thick fog and S.E. to E. 
winds, Mr. Agnew describes the movement as beyond comparison 
with any former experience of his. A vast rush of Bramblings, 
Chaffinches, Golden-crested Wrens without number, Silviince, 
Kobins, Hedge Accentors, Siskins, Larks, Eedwings, Eing Ouzels, 
Woodcocks, Blackcaps (a few). Sedge Warblers, Jack Snipes; 
and this movement continued in pulsing throbs and also con- 
tinuously, covering all October, November, and December, and 
far into 1883. For night after night hundreds of thousands of 
small birds circled round the lanterns, flying "against the sun" 
at Isle of May. From the Isle of May alone, as already stated, I 
have nineteen schedules filled to overflowing with Mr. Agnew's 
careful records. A separate paper on the Isle of May, which 
I hope to prepare when I have leisure, is the only way to 
do justice to the locality and its recorder. Curious that, although 
such vast numbers were seen at Isle of May, the numbers at the 
more inland station, or rather more landlocked station, of Inch 
Keith show quite a small numerical return ; but of these matters 
I shall have more to say in my General Eemarks. Six species of 
Tardidce occur recorded in the East Coast returns. Land 
Notes. — Mr. J. T. Garrioch, writing to me under date March 
13th, 1883, and remarking upon the vast nature of the general 
migration between Oct. 8th and 25th, during an E. to S.E. gale, 
mentions a few Fieldfares and one Thrush on the 9th which 
seemed much exhausted. In spring of 1882, Fieldfares remained 



8 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

late into April in Stirlingshire. A flock was seen among the foot- 
hills of the Denny range by myself on April 16th. 

Saxicolin^. — In spring, Wheatears (** Stonechats must be 
included here.* Another season Mr. Agnew will be able to 
distinguish between true Stonechats and Wheatears, and I hope 
other reporters also). Whinchats, Redstarts : First record 
(Wheatear) at Isle of May, March 29th, strong W. wind, clear ; 
latest (Eedstaiii) June 29th, light E., fog. But this may belong 
to autumn ; next latest (Redstart) May 24th, at Isle of May. 
Earliest Wheatear March 29th; latest, and a rush, on May 2nd 
(along with other birds unknown), N.E., rain and fog, at Bell 
Rock. A large bird struck heavily, and fell into the sea. Rush 
of Wheatears, April 5th. Earliest Whinchat, March 29th ; 
latest and rush, on April 15th, at Isle of May. Earliest Redstart, 
April 2nd, at Isle of May ; latest June 29th, and next May 24th. 
No great rush apparent. Of the above, Whinchats are also 
named "Blue Janets," a name usually applied, however, to the 
Hedgesparrow or Hedge Accentor. The record of June 29th, of 
a Redstart in light E. wind, seems more of an accidental nature, 
as it is separated from the one before by a month, and from the 
true autumn migration by six weeks. Three sjoecies of Saxicolince 
on East Coast in spring. In autumn, the same species. Records 
from Whalsey, Sumburgh Head, Pentland Skerries, Bell Rock, 
Isle of May, and Inch Keith. (Note. — These are the same stations 
that reported last season.) Earliest Stonechat, and earliest record, 
at Bell Rock on Aug. 9th, light S. breeze and fog ; latest Stonechat 
Sept. 22nd, also at Bell Rock. Indications of a rush at Pentland 
Skerries on Sept. 3rd. ''Blue Janets" participated in the 
October rush already spoken of (see under Turdid.e). Earliest 
Wheatear, Aug. 17th, at Pentland Skerries ; latest Sept. 17th. 
Earliest Redstart Sept. 15th ; latest Oct. 22nd. No additional 
species of Saxicolince appeared'in autumn. 

SiLViiN^. — In spring, Robins at Bell Rock only ; one seen on 
April 10th, struck lantern, but not killed. But "unusual num- 
bers" were seen at Isle of May in April, and in spring generally. 
In autumn, Robins at Sumburgh Head (where they are very 
rarely seen), N. Ronaldshay, Pentland Skerries, Dunnet Head, 
Chanonry, Bell Rock, Isle of May, and Inch Keith. Earliest at 

* In so far as the records apply at Isle of May. 



EAST COAST OF SCOTLAND. \) 

Isle of May, Aug. 18th ; latest at Chanonry, Dec. 20th, where 
one rested two days. No quantity till vast rush of October, when 
Mr. Agnew says he never saw so many Robins before. Greatest 
numbers seen on 12th. Enormous and uncommon numbers also 
on 18th at Isle of May, and all gone on 23rd. Large rush on 
12th also at Pentland Skerries, when numbers seen all day flying 
S.W. Indications of the same movement also at N. Ronaldshay, 
and to a less extent at Sumburgh Head (see under Tuedid^). 
Of other Silviince, in spring, a few Whitethroats (identified from 
a specimen in spirits) showed at Isle of May on May 6th, and in 
autumn a rush took place at same place on Aug. 16th (specimen 
No. 33 in spirits) ; but I have no other records. A single Black- 
cap on Oct. 14th participated in the rush at Isle of May. Three 
species of Silviince occurred. 

Phylloscopin^. — A marvellous migration of Golden-crested 
Regulus both in spring and autumn. In spring, the only station 
giving returns is Isle of May, where Mr. Agnew says they are 
very unusual at this season. Earliest on March 9th, when one 
was seen at lights. Large numbers ; a rush on 19th and one bird 
on 20th. All March records accompanied by N.W. through W. to 
S.W. winds. The rush took place with light S.W., and rain. 
Three other records are on April 1st, 4th, and 10th; a rush on 
the 10th of females ; the males preceded the females by some 
weeks. Migration in spring thus lasted from March 9th to April 
10th. In autumn, at Sumburgh Head, Auskerry, Pentland 
Skerries, Bell Rock, and Isle of May. Earliest on Aug. 27th, at 
Isle of May ; latest at same station on Nov. 12th. Rushes : 
steady influx all September after the 13th ; a solitary bird on 
Oct. 4th ; a rush on 8th, indicated at Sumburgh Head and 
Pentland Skerries. (Note. — This is their first appearance here 
for five years ; it is marked " very rare" at Sumburgh Head, and 
indeed natives had not seen them before). More decided at Bell 
Rock, where they accompanied Bullfinches and Pipits on the 
12th, and at Isle of May. The body of the rush occupied three 
days, from the 8th to the 12th ; during that time, at Isle of May, 
Mr. Agnew describes their numbers as ''enormous." Of other 
Phi/lloscopince, Leaf-warblers — the species, however, not always 
recognisable from descriptions — were fairly abundant. In spring, 
one record of either a Wood or Willow Warbler (probably the 
latter) on May 24th at Isle of May. In autumn, the Isle of May 

c 



10 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

again produces all the records I have, the earliest being con- 
siderable numbers of Chiffchaffs (identified) on Aug. 9th, a few 
on Sept. 13th, 17th, and 27th, at Isle of May ; a rush on Oct. 
7th, 8th, and 9tli, and all gone on 10th ; a few on 14th, and all 
finally gone on 15th. Three (or four ?) species of PhylloscopincB 
recorded on East Coast. Land Xotes. — On April 24th one 
Willow Warbler seen at Shirgarton, ten miles W. of Stirling. 
Mr. Garrioch, writing from Lerwick, says : — " In the evening of 
Oct. 9th my attention was called to a large flock of birds crossing 
the harbour from the Island of Bressay, and on coming to a spot 
on the shore where a large number had taken refuge from the 
storm I found the flock to consist of Goldcrests, and a few Fire- 
crests amongst them. They continued to increase in numbers 
for a few days, and several specimens were sent to me for pre- 
servation from distant parts of the islands." These were preceded 
on the 8th by flocks of Willow Wrens, one flock numbering about 
twenty. " The Goldcrests spread over the entire islands, and were 
observed in considerable numbers till the middle of November, 
when they all disaj)peared." Subsequently, Mr. Garrioch, writing 
to me in repl}" to certain queries as to the authenticity of the 
" Fire-crested Wrens," says : — '' Of one flock of Goldcrests, I 
observed five birds which I thought to be the Firecrest. 
I obtained one specimen very distinctly marked. It seemed 
to me that the Firecrests were very much more exhausted 
by the storm than the Goldcrests." Note. — I had in my letter 
shown the distinction between the male Goldcrest and the 
true Firecrest, the male Goldcrest having a mark above and 
below the eye, without the black line through the eye, the 
Firecrest showing three bars. 

AcRocEPHALiN^E. — In Spring, at Isle of May, Mr. Agnew 
believes he identifies " Keed Warblers " on April 4th ; his 
description, however, would -equally apply perhaps to White- 
throats or to Sedge Warblers. In autumn, a rush of similar 
birds took place there on Oct. 9th. Perhaps two species 
recorded. 

AccENTORiNjE. — In March, ''Blue Janets," of Mr. Agnew, 
which are represented by a Whinchat in spirits, but which name 
in Scotland is correctly applied only to the Hedgesparrow or 
Hedge Accentor. In autumn, one " Blue Janet " on Dec. 3rd. 
Whilst it is the most abundant of migratory species in autumn on 



EAST COAST OF SCOTLAND. 11 

the E. English Coast, next to the Goldcrest, it is curious to find 
scarcely any records on our E. Scotch Coast. 

Varidm. — Titmice : In spring, one record (" the first seen on 
the lantern for many years ") at Cromarty, on March 11th, 
fresh W. and clear. In autumn, considerable numbers of Titmice 
at Isle of May on Aug. 9th ; occurred at Whalsey, N. Eonald- 
shay (in Oct., Nov., and Dec), Pentland Skerries, Isle of May, 
and Inch Keith. Earliest as above, Aug. 9th, at Isle of May ; 
latest at N. Eonaldshay, between Dec. 6th and 12th, when a few 
came with Kobins in a snow-storm (probably local movement 
only) ; they accompanied Eobins and Thrushes also at N. Eonald- 
shay on Nov. 12th ; on Oct. 12th about sixteen stayed four days, 
and left on 16th ; this is the only indication of a rush. Number 
of species of Paridce unknown. Land Notes. — On Sept. 6th I 
heard Marsh Tit in our woods at Dunipace ; this is the earliest 
autumn record I have, but spring records I have at other 
localities in the county. 

Troglodytin^. — Common Wren : One species. A few records 
in autumn from Sumburgh Head, Bressay, Pentland Skerries, 
N. Eonaldshay, and Isle of May; earliest one seen for a 
moment on island. At Sumburgh Head on Aug. 11th, and three 
on 12th; latest at Pentland Skerries on Dec. 7th, wind N.E., 
clear. Eush quite marked on Oct. 10th at Isle of May, still not 
numerous ; also at N. Eonaldshay, on Nov. 12th, a few came 
with Eobins and Thrushes, and a few on same day came also 
with Eobins and Thrushes to Isle of May, wind easterly. Land 
Notes. — Mr. Garrioch obtained one male Creeper on Oct. 12th, 
caught on Bressay with Great Spotted Woodpeckers, " all seeming 
much the worse of the storm." 

Motacillid^. — In spring, at Whalsey, Bell Eock, and Isle of 
May ; in all five records. Earliest Feb. 24th, at Isle of May, 
light W. wind; latest at Whalsey, May 24th (" Grey Wagtail," 
marked " very rare here "). At Bell Eock all birds leave at high 
tide, being drowned off. In autumn, records from Whalsey, 
Sumburgh Head, and Isle of May. Earliest from 23rd to 26th, 
a flock of '' Grey Wagtails " flying about island, and on 27th 
seven seen all day on Pentland Skerries ; latest on Isle of May, 
one Pied Wagtail on Nov. 7th. No rush very apparent. On Sept. 
20th, Mr. J. Agnew has the record, " at Isle of May, three, N.E. 
gale, one very white in colour and one very black " ; and on Oct. 31st 



12 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

the further record, "two, one very white, the other dark." We 
would like specimens of these " very white Wagtails." Possibly 
records relate to three species, but it will be safer only to include 
one at present. Titlarks (Eock Pipits ?) arrived in large numbers 
on Isle of May on March 9tli, and " supplemented some half dozen 
that remained all winter." N.B. The ones that remained are 
probably " Eock Pipits " {Anthus ohscurus), and the additions are 
probably ''Meadow Pip its" (A.pratensis). In autumn, at Sumburgh 
Head, Pentland Skerries, Bell Eock, and Isle of May ; earliest, 
one at Isle of May (" Mosscheeper," J. Agnew ; or Meadow Pipit, 
J. A. H. B.) ; latest, Bell Eock, Oct. 9th, " Mosscheeper," Mr. Jack; 
on this occasion mixed with Bullfinches. Eush on Sept. 4th, at 
Sumburgh Head, large flocks of " Eock Larks," auct. John 
Wilson ; and a constant stream of the same on 15th, along with 
Larks. Desultory migration during September ; only one record, 
curiously enough, in October. Two species of Anthince {Mota- 
cilliclce) noticed. Note. — See remarks on land migration of the 
Pied Wagtail at end of the General Eemarks. 

Laniid.e. — One record, on Oct. 16th, at Isle of May; one bird 
accompanied rush of Oct. 8th and 18th, strong S. after S.E. 
One species recorded — the Great Grey Shrike. Notes. — A male 
Great Grey Shrike killed at Helensburgh, Dumbartonshire 
(illustrates line across central districts of Scotland), Feb. 3rd, 
1883 ; about 1st Nov., 1882, three Great Grey Shrikes (two male 
and one female), and one same date at Eedcastle. Eosshire 
(' Scotsman,' Feb. 17th, 1883) ; the last great appearance of this 
species was in 1873 — 74. A golden Oriole {Oriolus cjalhula) oc- 
curred during the October migration at Lerwick, along with two 
Spotted Woodpeckers, a Tree Creeper, and the Golden-crested 
Wrens. 

MuscicAPiDiE. — Pied Flycatcher : three records at Isle of 
May on Aug. 15th, one female, light S., rain and fog; on Sept. 
15th one female struck and killed ; on Nov. 7th one male flying 
S., but obtained, fresh S.W. breeze. One species. Notes. — Two 
Waxwings, a very fine male and a female, killed at Kinneil by 
Mr. D. Nichol, gamekeeper to Mr. Eussell, Dundee Castle, on 
Jan. 18th, 1883. Kinneil is close to Bo'ness, at the head of the 
Firth of Forth. This female is one of the very finest birds I ever 
saw. Out of the hundreds exaiiiined in the frozen marts of St. 
Petersburg and Moscow I only saw one to equal it, the develop- 



EAST COAST OF SCOTLAND. 13 

ment of the wax-like appendages being very great on both wings 
and tail. 

HiRUNDiNiD^. — In spring Swallows appeared at Whalsey, 
Sumburgh Head, Auskerry, Pentland Skerries, Cromarty, Isle of 
May, and Inch Keith. Earliest at Isle of May, April 22nd, and 
more on 23rd. Latest at same place, on June 26th. Kush 
perceptible at Isle of May, May 11th to 17th, when a steady 
migration in small numbers were observed flying N., wind W. to 
S.E. All Swallows seen have been during the forenoon. Sand 
Martin on May 9th, at Whalsey Skerries. In autumn, at same 
stations, continuous records from June, many no doubt relating 
to local movements, therefore perhaps somewhat dijE&cult to 
separate spring and autumn records. On July 3rd and 4th, 
however, at Auskerry, flocks were seen at noon ; wind light 
S. to S.E. Martins are noted from Whalsey, and Auskerry 
and Pentland Skerries ; and Sand Martin from Isle of May 
on Aug. 24th. All other records apply to Common Swallows. 
Swallows resident at Cromarty disappeared on Sept. 1st. No 
great rushes very apparent. Latest on Oct. 6th, at Sumburgh 
Head; next, on Oct. 2nd, at Isle of May; strong S.W. wind. 
Three species noticed. Land Notes. — In spring, first Swallow 
seen by M. P. Kermode and myself at Dunipace, on April 23rd ; 
and same day, at Shirgarton, by another party. None seen on 
16th, when Bidwell and I were out, and when we took a Dipper's 
nest and four eggs. On 26th, Mr. K. Gray saw two Martins in 
Edinburgh. Swallows and Sand Martins were first seen at 
Kelso, on the Tweed, on April 16th (auct. J. J. Armistead, Esq.). 
See also General Kemarks. 

Fringillid^. — In spring, great movements of many species 
of Finches, both in spring and autumn, comprising the follow- 
ing species : — Green and Grey Linnets, Chaffinches, Bramblings, 
Siskins, Eedpolls, House Sparrows, Tree Sparrows, Bullfinches, 
the Green and Grey Linnets predominating, and occurring at 
the following stations : — Spring, almost entirely monopolised at 
Isle of May ; Siskins also appearing at Inch Keith. From March 
3rd on to May 22nd. Only indication of unusual rush perhaps 
on March 17th and 18th (Green Linnets and Chaffinches). Pre- 
vailing wind at Isle of May all April, many birds appearing, S.E., 
except on April 25th, when there were no birds, the wind shifting 
round to N.E. suddenly. In autumn, at Isle of May, a solitary 



14 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

Green Linnet appeared on July 14th. The above species showed 
at Sumburgh Head, Pentland Skerries, Bell Kock, Isle of May, 
and Inch Keith. Earliest, Grey Linnets, Aug. 23rd, at Isle of 
May. Latest, at same spot, on Dec. 8th. Vast rush in October 
(9th to 23). Green Linnets, earliest somewhat later than the 
last, but the rush about same time. Chaffinches, no records till 
Oct. 10th, at Sumburgh Head, where it is only seen on migra- 
tion. The great rush of Chaffinches, as compared with other 
species, apparent, but movement distinct in October. Brambling, 
no records till Oct. 10th, when a rush past was made, and no 
more seen again till Dec. 3rd, when one was seen. Nine Siskins, 
a considerable movement ; earliest, Aug. 7th, at Isle of May ; 
latest, Oct. 16th. The rush of this species took place on Sept. 
27th and 28th, when scores, mostly females, were on Isle of 
May ; and they also showed at Inch Keith. A rush, however, 
also took place about Oct. 16th. Kedpolls appear not quite so 
abundantly in the records as other species. The records are in 
September and December. A rush of Tree Sparrows took place 
at Isle of May, where Mr. Agnew says he does not remember 
seeing this species before. One was captured on Oct. 15th. A 
very few House Sparrows were noticed in October. A few Bull- 
finches showed at Bell Eock, accompanied by Pipits and Golden- 
crested Wrens, &c., on Oct. 9th to 12th. The records take me 
up to Dec. 12th for Fringillidce. Nine species of Fringillidce 
under notice. Land Notes. — On Oct. 8th a flock of about fifty 
Mealy Eedpolls, all males, kept flying rojind about Lerwick, at 
the same time with a few Willow Wrens, one flock numbering 
twenty.— (J. T. G.) 

Emberizid^. — In spring, the February records may apply to 
last Eeport as regards Snow Buntings. They were uncommonly 
numerous at Isle of May in 1881-82. Large flocks seen flying 
S. there on Feb. 22nd, and al:so on 13th and 24th. On March 
1st large numbers, taking on the summer plumage, or mostly 
adults, after a gale of twenty-four hours, from E. to S.E. (Vide 
under Turdid^e of this date ; same remarks apply here.) Same 
day, one Eeed Bunting. Snow Buntings continued to show at 
intervals all March ; two showed on April 15th at Isle of May. 
None were seen in May. In autumn, the records are numerous 
of Snow Buntings from most ol the stations sending returns ; 
perhaps most so at Pentland Skerries in November. Do not 



EAST COAST OF SCOTLAND. 15 

bulk SO largely at Isle of May. Earliest Sept. 19th, at Isle 

of May (the remark, "too early," appended by Mr. Agnew). 

No great rush in October along with the other species, but 

bulking largely in November at Sumburgh Head, where 250 

showed in three compact flocks on 6th ; also at Pentland 

Skerries abundant all through the month, but maximum about 

the 10th, when fully 1000 were all day on the Island; winds 

N.E. to E. and S.E., with some calm days and variable. About 

this time departing flocks seen to fly off S.W. and flocks seen to 

arrive from the N.E. over the sea. Snow Buntings seem to 

arrive at Dunnet Head more frequently with W. and S.W. winds, 

and also to a considerable extent with similar wind at Pentland 

Skerries. This has been remarked before. After sharp frosts 

and N.E. snow-storms they soon appear. Common Bunting is 

reported from Isle of May for the first time on Dec. 19th ; 

Yellow Buntings appeared occasionally in reports at Isle of 

May ; and the first recorded occurrence at Pentland Skerries on 

Dec. 17th and 19th. One remained a week singly — a female — • 

on Isle of May up to Nov. 4th. Four species of Buntings 

appear. 

Alaudid^. — In spring the Skylark is reported " very rare " at 
Whalsey ; one on March 14th. A few at Isle of May on March 
15th; none there on April 3rd: fair S.E. breeze. In autumn 
full records, but not before Sept. 11th, at Sumburgh Head, 
accompanied by " Rock Larks." Occurred at Sumburgh Head, 
Pentland Skerries and Isle of May. Earliest as above, Sept. 
11th; latest Dec. 31. Eush from about Sept. 11th to 18th at 
Sumburgh Head, and also patent at Isle of May ; vast rush most 
observed at Bell Rock and Isle of May in October (see under 
Ttjbdid^). At Bell Rock most on Oct. 12th, "Bullfinches, 
Blackbirds, Mavises, Larks, Stonechats, Golden-crested Wrens, 
Titlarks and Starlings, dead on balcony or fell into sea. Mr. 
Jack is sure hundreds must have been killed that night." 
Again, on Dec. 20th, Mr. Jack remarks, "largest numbers 
of Larks ever seen here ; impossible to state numbers seen or 
killed ; striking hard for hours, like a shower of hail." On Oct. 
12th and Dec. 20th loss of life must have been very great; 
great flocks of Larks alone at Bell Rock on 16th and again on 
31st. Records do not take me beyond this date. One species. 

Sturnin^. — Records of Common Starling comparatively 



16 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

scanty. Earliest July 1st at Isle of May, a large flock of young 
birds and daily flocks seen, mostly young, to July 29th. On 
Aug. 7tli a large flock seen coming from the N. ; another on 
14th. Numbers on Island fall off in September ; by the 23rd 
but few left. In October only one record at Pentland Skerries, 
when two struck ; none in November, and two records in Decem- 
ber, on 17th at Pentland Skerries, and on 25th at Isle of May, 
when eight were seen. Scarcity of Starlings again (see Report 
1881, p. 9) noticeable. One species. The only other British 
species is a very rare British bird — the Rose-coloured Starling. 

CoRviDiE. — I have records from every month in the year but 
June. I take them in order. In January one record, a large 
flock of Jackdaws seen flying S.W. at Cromarty (probably a 
local migration). At Isle of May one Rook on Feb. 12th, flying 
W., wind S.W. In March, at Sumburgh Head, two Ravens 
('* the first seen since the autumn of 1881 " here), flying N. with 
light S. breeze, and another seen on the 16th in a W. gale. At 
Isle of May two Rooks seen on 29th (** never many seen here 
together"), light W. breeze. In April, at Bell Rock, four Rooks 
seen flying JE. over the sea, wind S.E., April 4th ; at Isle 
of May, on May 14th, four Carrion Crows and thirty- six Hooded 
Crows alighted and killed several of Mr. Agnew's lambs ; N.E. 
gale at the time. At Pentland Skerrias two Rooks on Island, 
wind fair, S.S.E. In autumn, records from most of the stations 
sending returns, from July 26th, at Pentland Skerries, to Dec. 
9th, at same place (Ravens). The only, appearance of a rush 
was when fifteen Hooded Crows appeared at Pentland Skerries, 
but this may only have been local. This was on Oct. 12th, 
however, the time of the vast rush of other species. The 
Pentland Skerries are regularly visited by Ravens and Hooded 
Crows, and occasionally by Rooks, which latter may come across 
the North Sea at times, or may simply make local migrations 
from Tongue in Sutherlandshire. A few appeared at the Isle of 
May also at the time of the vast rush. Five species of Corvida 
noted. Land Notes. — Mr. Garrioch writes : — " 1 obtained a male 
Jackdaw on Oct. 15th, shot on a peat dyke near Lerwick. Same 
evening a large flock of Ravens assembled on the shore at 
Sound (?), attracted by a number of Puffins' and Guillemots' 
bodies driven ashore by the force of the sea, as also fish of 
different sorts which had shared the same fate. The Ravens 



EAST COAST OF SCOTLAND. 17 

betook themselves to the high cHffs of Bressay. They continued 
to pass the same spot during November, December and January, 
going westward over the islands every morning at daybreak and 
returning at dusk to roost in the same rocks." On Oct. 14th a 
Crow took refuge on a vessel — the Danish ship ' Otto ' (Capt. 
Mortensen) — about eleven miles from St. Abb's Head, and flew 
off shoreward on approaching Granton ('Edinburgh Courant,' 
Oct. 14th). 

Cypselid^. — One record only at Sumburgh Head, on Aug. 
23rd ; light airs N., clear. 

CucuLiDiE. — We had no entries under this head anywhere on 
east coast of Scotland in 1881. At Cromarty, Cuckoo first heard, 
April 4th, light E. breeze, clear; and on June 23rd two Cuckoos 
were all day on Isle of May, both of which Mr. Agnew secured 
for the Isle of May collection, and they were old and young. 
Stated by Mr. Agnew to be very rare on Isle of May. One 
species. Land Notes. — A Cuckoo was shot on Aug. 30th, at 
Glasslaw, Bruchlay, Aberdeenshire {vide W. Horn). 

STRiGiDiE. — Earliest July 4th, at Pentland Skerries, one 
** Horned Owl " (rare). In Sept., at Auskerry, two Short-eared 
Owls seen at noon, light variable wind ; and in October a pair 
remained at same place three days after 28th. One seen at 
Pentland Skerries on 12th. Fresh E.S.E. breeze. On Nov. 18th, 
at Bell Kock, one Long-eared Owl rested on balcony, fresh S. 
breeze ; and on 9th one Short-eared Owl seen asleep in grass on 
Isle of May, and afterwards shot for Isle of May collection. On 
Dec. 19th, at Pentland Skerries, one Grey Owl. Probably only 
two species, but possibly three. 

Falconid^ occur in almost every month of the year, but 
fewer records in spring than in autumn. Many visits are the 
result of only local migration in search of food ; indeed such 
are the great majority of instances, although these must also come 
to be distinguished as far as possible from the birds of actual 
passage. In spring, frequent in February at several stations, 
always on predatory excursions, notably at insular stations, as 
Whalsey and Isle of May. In March only two records at some 
places, and in April two at the same places, both on the same day 
— the 23rd. At Whalsey a game Hawk rested, apparently much 
fatigued, wind E. and haze. In May one record on 25th, at Isle 
of May. In autumn, at Whalsey, Sumburgh Head, Auskerry, 



18 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

Bressay, Pentland Skerries, Bell Rock, Isle of May. Records 
numerous, though not so great as in 1881. Greatest aggregate 
in any one month in October. Most numerous at Pentland 
Skerries and Isle of May. Earliest July 29th, at Isle of May, 
one small Hawk. Latest through December into Jan., 1883. 
Rush, if any can be said to be appreciable, in October. Thus, 
such species as game Hawks, large Hawks, large brown Hawks, 
dark grey Hawks, &c., appear in the records more abundantly in 
October than at other times, whilst Sparrowhawks, Merlin and 
Kestrel appear more frequently at other times. The following 
species are included, but it would be more satisfactory to obtain 
specimens : — Kestrel, Merlin, Sparrowhawk (max.), and those 
mentioned above. On Oct. 12th two Hawks were hunting small 
birds all night, in the the zone of light. Buzzards and Harriers 
are also probably included.* 

WATER-BIRDS. 

Pelicanid^. — In spring, in May, at Sumburgh Head, ten 
Gannets were seen, flying S., at 9.30 a.m., with S.S.E. breeze, 
and on 4th thirty-five, also flying S., with S.E. breeze. In 
autumn, at Sumburgh Head, Pentland Skerries and Dunnet 
Head, observations taken ; earliest July 5th, three flying S.E., 
mod. N.W. at Sumburgh. On 17th, flying E. all day, fresh S. 
showers. Pass and repass Dunnet Head every day till Sept. 15th 
in threes and dozens. One species. Other Notes. — From Mr. T. 
Anderson, s.s. ' Marathon,' Dec. 27th, 1882.—*' This has not 
been a very good trip for observations oh birds, the southerly 
migration being past ; but when off the coast of Portugal, on our 
way home, I saw from 150 to 200 Solan Geese in company, and 
occasionally finding a shoal of fish. All their movements were 
in a northerly direction ; when they were done with a shoal 
01 fish, they never proceeded S., but always N." 

Ardeidje. — Common Herons : Stragglers at almost all times ; 
most records in autumn. That local migration is principally 
indicated is seen by the very various directions of flight noted at 
some stations, often coming from and 'returning to the same 
points of the compass. These are given in detail in sixteen 
schedules and in the ledger from which this report is written. 
In spring, April 11th, record at Isle of May, one at Sumburgh 

'■^ Difficult to say how many species are intended, but probably at least six. 



EAST COAST OF SCOTLAND. 19 

Head, marked "rare," light S.E. airs; and Herons frequented 
the shore off and on at Isle of May, from the date of May 1st to 
the first week in September. On 24th three were seen ; these 
flying N. On June 19th one addition was seen there. In July 
two recorded, one flying N. on 31st. In autumn, Aug. 16th, at 
Sumburgh Head, one flying W., light E. airs; on 17th three 
flying N., light S.E. airs; and on 19th one flying W., light E. 
airs. In Sept., at Whalsey, on 14th, one flying W., marked " very 
rare so early," wind N., fresh, and at Cromarty " seen daily since 
first week in May." At Isle of May on 22nd, in calm and haze, 
one '' screaming as if lost." Then in October we find on different 
dates Herons recorded as flying in all directions : 13th, " came 
from S. and returned S. ;" 23rd, flying W., wind S.W. ; flying 
S.W., gale S.E., all night at Bressay, when many other species 
struck unseen ; 24th, at Isle of May, flying S., and similar records 
at various stations all through November." N.B. These ledger 
entries may be useful later. One species. 

Anatid^. — Wild Geese : In spring, on March 1st, two were 
seen, flying very fast, 1000 feet in the air, crying loudly, before an 
E.S.E wind, and settled on the land at Sumburgh Head to rest. 
A Brent Goose seen at Isle of May on March 20th, and a large 
flock of Geese flying E. accompanied by Curlews at Isle of May, 
on April 21st. One Brent ('* Sly Goose ") at Pentland Skerries, 
in June (marked "rare"), flying E. In autumn, at Chanonry, 
Sumburgh Head, North Eonaldshay and Isle of May. Earliest 
noted, but probably local movement after the birds had taken up 
their quarters on Aug. 26th, at Chanonry, when 100 Grey Geese 
were seen, fair S.W., clear. Here the general flight is N. or. S., 
being the "lie" of the Firth; on 28th also 100 seen. Latest 
records into January, 1883. Bushes imperceptible, but very 
large flocks are mentioned at Isle of May, on December 23rd 
and 24th, flying from S.W. to N.E. " Sly Geese " (Brent) are 
noted on Oct. 14th, at Sumburgh Head ; at Isle of May, thirteen 
Wild Geese, flying W. in a single line, on Oct. 2nd, light S. wind, 
clear. Two species of Wild Goose. Eider Duck arrived at 
breeding haunts at Whalsey Head on March 29th ; wind N. and 
haze. At Isle of May twenty-three, about equal male and 
female, first seen on March 1st, after a gale which had lasted for 
twenty-four hours from E. to S.E., and which brought over 
Eedwings, Lapwings, Books, Hoodies, &c. (see Turdid^). First 



20 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

record at Sumburgb Head is not till April 17th ; three seen ; 
fresh E.N.E. wind. In autumn, at Pentland Skerries, continuous 
flocks flying S.E., mostly females, on Oct. 6th (compare with 
Report 1881, p. 12). Again, at Sumburgh Head, three (the first 
seen), on Nov. 5th, fresh W. ; and at Pentland Skerries, on 22nd, 
a flock, mixed male and female, flying S. ; and on 28th a large 
flock, mostly males, about the rocks all day. Of other Ducks 
scattered records only : a few Teal, seen on March 1st, at Isle 
of May ; at Pentland Skerries, Sept. 3rd ; and seven on pools on 
Island, on Dec. 6th. Grey Ducks (probably Scaup or Pochard) 
at Chanonry, where some 400 flying W. were noted. The 
records of Anatid.e not so voluminous this season as last ; 
three or four species. On March 23rd fifteen White Swans came 
from S., rested on the sea at Sumburgh Head, and flew on N. ; 
wind fresh, S.W. breeze. Again at same place. Swans flying N. 
and crying loudly on April 10th. On May 9th one was shot at 
same place. It alighted in a voe three miles from station, and 
was no doubt a weakly bird so late in the spring; fresh S.S.E. 
In autumn, records at Sumbm-gh Head, N. Ronaldshay, Cha- 
nonry, and Isle of May. Earliest Sept. 18th, at Chanonry, when 
six were seen ; light S.W. and cloudy. At same place, two on 
25th and ten on 26th ; haze and rain, variable and light N.E. 
In November, six flying W. at N. Eonaldshay, strong N.E. and 
snow. In December four seen at N. Eonaldshay, fresh E., and 
on 28th two seen at N. end of Isle of May. Note. — Look out 
always for two sizes of Wild Swan — the. large Common Wild 
Swan and the lesser Bewick's Swan. If together the two species 
are easily distinguishable. Land Notes. — Brent Geese unusually 
abundant on the Tay this year, 1881-82 (P. D. Maloch). 

CoLrMBiD^. — Note. — We had no records of Pigeons on E. 
coast last season, 1881. This year we have them both in spring 
and autumn. We would lik^to know if all records of "Wood 
Pigeon " are strictly correct, and if no veritable Stock Doves 
passed on migration.* In spring, at Bell Rock, on April 9th, one 
"Wood Pigeon" struck and was killed at 10.30 p.m., light 
S.S.E. ; and at Isle of May one struck and was killed at 2 a.m., 

* See a paper by me on the *' Increase and Extension of Range of the 
Stock Dove," read before the Pioj^al Physical Society of Edinburgh, Feb., 
1883. They are seen in large migratory flocks on the mainland in May — as 
in the Carse of Gowrie — in some seasons, and I have received specimens this 
spring and winter from two localities in this county — Stirhngshire. 



EAST COAST OF SCOTLAND. ' 21 

light S.E. Again, on May 22nd, one seen at Isle of May, S.E. 
clear ; and on 29th one, at 6 p.m., seen flying S., light W., clear ; 
and on June 28th one again, at Isle of May, at 3 p.m., light E., 
fog. In autumn, on Sept. 26th, at Isle of May, one, light S.E., 
hail and rain ; and Nov. 2nd, at Isle of May, one flew S., after 
coming to the light ; and on 26th another was seen. At Pent- 
land Skerries one rose off the island and flew W., gale from S.E. 
In December, Wood Pigeons occurred at Isle of May under the 
following circumstances and dates : — On 3rd, one ; on 6th, 
thirteen flying S., severe snowstorm ; on 12th, thirty, light W. 
wind, thick fog; on 13th, fifty-one in lighthouse garden, eating 
ravenously; severe snowstorm from the 6th to 9th, and hard 
frost until 16th ; on 14th-15th, hundreds seen. A rush caused 
by local stress of weather, or they may have come directly across 
seas. {Note. — I have elsewhere noted the arrivals of Wood 
Pigeons from Norway, as seen by me on the Fifeshire coast, and 
the S. trend of their flight, as soon as they came over the land ; 
and I have given the above records in detail, as I think they will 
be useful again.) Besides Wood Pigeons, I have two records of 
Eock Doves, — one at Pentland Skerries, seen flying N., with 
light S. wind, at 3 p.m., on Nov. 8th ; and one on Dec. 1st, at 
midnight, at Dunnet Head, fresh S.S.E., thick haze and rain; 
probably only local movements. Two species recorded. La7id 
Notes. — About a dozen ** Small Pigeons," which "may," Mr. 
Garrioch thinks, *' have been Wood Pigeons," were seen in the 
Island of Yell at the end of October, and from other quarters. 
Mr. Garrioch was informed of flights of " strange birds seen from 
the off- lying islands flying off in a southerly direction." 

Pallida. — Eecords of Corn Crake scarce. In May, first 
heard at Cromarty on 14th. In September one killed at light at 
Pentland Skerries on 20th, light N.E. and cloudy, indicating 
possibly date of departure from the Orkneys. Land Note. — I am 
credibly informed that the Corn Crake was heard in two different 
localities in N. Uist about March 18th, 1882 ; Mr. Alex. Car- 
michael, who is studying the Natural History of the Long Island, 
himself heard one. Yery late occurrences of this species are 
also on record in previous years, such as at Tyree on Nov. 24th, 
1880, evidently wounded or disabled birds (W. Craibe Angus, 
who exhibited the bird at a late meeting of the Glasg. Nat. Hist. 
Soc.) ; and another, dating Dec. 17th, 1882, is recorded from 



22 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

Ireland in * The Zoologist,' April, 1883, p. 177. It seems quite 
probable that some birds detained from migrating may remain 
all winter in the milder portions of Great Britain, and that early 
spring records may thus, in many cases, be accounted for. 

Charadriad.^. — Golden Plover : in spring, one record at 
Sumburgh Head ; three seen, light S. breeze and cloudy, at 
10*30 a.m. In autumn, at Sumburgh Head, Pentland Skerries, 
Dunnet Head, Isle of May. Smaller movement in 1882 than in 
1881. Earliest recorded, Aug. 7th, at Pentland Skerries ; a 
flock. Latest, at same place, on Dec. 18th ; a single bird. 
Eushes scarcely appreciable, except 120 birds on Oct. 15th, at 
Sumburgh Head; S.S.E. gale and rain ; and a large flock (?) at 
Dunnet Head on Oct. 2nd. At Sumburgh Head also about forty 
on Nov. 12th. Oystercatcher : in spring '* Sea-pyots " arrived 
here, Whalsey, on March 3rd at night, with strong E.S.E. breeze 
and clear. Two seen, first time, at Isle of May on April 2nd. In 
autumn, after remaining on Whalsey, left between Aug. 13th and 
18th, during a fog and fresh S.E. breeze; and on 13th, at Isle 
of May, one large flock of young were seen, light S. and haze. 
On Sept. 14th a flock flew about Pentland Skerries all day in 
light N. breeze. Beyond these I have no other records. Of 
Lapwing, a record or two on Feb. 13th and 24th, after S.W. gale 
on 13th ; and 26th, stragglers? In spring, at Whalsey (** very 
rare"), Sumburgh Head, Bell Eock, and Isle of May. Earliest 
in spring, March 2nd, at Isle of May, after a gale from E. to S.E. 
for twenty-four hours (see under Turdid^ of date) ; 3rd, eight 
seen ; large numbers again on 20th. Latest on June 19th, four, 
with light S.E. and haze. Two only in May at Isle of May, and 
these appeared with light N.E. wind. In April a few passed on 
3rd, 9th, and 10th, in easterly winds, or rested. In autumn, at 
Pentland Skerries, Chanonry, and Isle of May. Earliest, Aug. 
17th, one seen, light W. wind7 Latest, a few in December, at 
Pentland Skerries, flying W. Bushes inappreciable, unless 
Sept. 14th, at Chanonry, forty seen ; and on 28th, at Isle of May, 
twenty-seven seen, in light S.S.E. wind. Land Notes. — On 
April 16th Lapwings were still going in flocks in the central 
counties of Scotland. At the Biver Pattack, in S. Inverness- 
shire, I saw distinctly a Whimbrel (Numeniiis phceopus) twice, on 
May 24th. (Possibly an addition to the birds of Inverness- 
shire.) See under W. coast also. 



EAST COAST OF SCOTLAND. 23 

ScoLOPACiD^. — Curlew : in spring, a number of records at 
Sumburgh Head, Pentland Skerries, Bell Kock, Isle of May. 
Earliest, at Isle of May ("unusual at this season"), one seen, 
light W. wind and clear. Latest, at Isle of May, a number seen 
on June 28th, light E. fog. As early as May 23rd one young 
one seen on rocks at Isle of May (this properly belongs to autumn 
migration ; result abnormal, perhaps owing to unusually early 
season, after a mild winter). General movement continuing all 
July, and difficult to separate spring and autumn .manoeuvres. 
As will be seen others of the Scolopacidce make early appearances 
also this season (Woodcock, Snipe, &c.). In autumn, a large 
movement of Curlews between Pentland Skerries and Isle of 
May. To the N. of Pentland Skerries very few observed. 
Earliest (if we take July), July 10th, at Pentland Skerries, one 
heard. Latest, also at Pentland Skerries, on Dec. 7th, a flock, 
strong E. Eushes spasmodical and frequent in July and August. 
Note. — Between Oct. 14th and 19th, strong S. gale, moderate on 
20th, at Pentland Skerries. Sept. 22nd, October and December, 
but almost inappreciable in numbers. Woodcock, a few in 
spring, but a steady record in autumn. In spring, one record 
at Isle of May on April 9th ; " not remembered to have been seen 
here before at this season." In autumn, at Whalsey, Sumburgh 
Head, N. Konaldshay, Pentland Skerries, and Isle of May. 
Earliest, Oct. 8th (N.B., commencement of vast migration before 
noted), two seen at N. Konaldshay, S.E. fresh; continued in 
small numbers through 12th, 13th, 14th, 15th, 19th, 25th (co- 
existent with rush of other species), at most stations on 
E. coast sending returns. Latest, on Dec. 4th, at Pentland 
Skerries. Evident rush on Oct. 13th at Isle of May, when no 
less than twenty were shot there. On Isle of May a record in 
November says, '' very unusual so late," when three were seen. 
Of Snipe, only one record at Isle of May in spring, on April 5th, 
with the remark, *' very unusual at this season." Autumn, at 
Sumburgh Head and Whalsey (only two records), and at Pent- 
land Skerries and Isle of May. Earliest, several on Aug. 17th, 
at Pentland Skerries ; and 6th, one at Isle of May, strong W., 
clear (remark, "very early"). Latest, on Dec. 19th, at Pentland 
Skerries, six seen, strong S.W. Scarcely a rush appreciable. 
Jack Snipes are recorded on Sept. 25th and 27th, at Isle of May, 
with light S. and S.E. breeze. 



24 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

ScoLOPAciD^ (Waders). — Earliest, "Plovers Pages" or 
" Plovers Leaders " (Dunlin, J. A. H. B.), Aug. 10th, at Isle 
of May; latest, Redshanks, Dec. 7th, at Isle of May. Sand- 
larks" and "Pipers" appeared at Chanonry, Aug. 30th, when 
one was seen, and disappeared on Oct. 13th. (Probably the 
Common Sandpiper, but " Pipers " is a name used generically 
for many species.) If any rush, apparent on Sept. 19th, 20th, 
and 26th, at Chanonry. Numbers on these dates : 90, 90, and 
290 ; but this is deceptive, and not to be relied upon as a 
statistic, Waders movements are so erratic. Returns of 
"Pipers," "Waders," "Redshanks," and " Sandlarks," are 
given from several stations. Probably seven or eight species of 
Waders. Land Notes. — Rare occurrences. Pectoral Sandpiper 
{Tringa maculata, Vieill.) shot at The Ross Priory, mouth of the 
Endrick River, Loch Lomond, by Sir Geo. Leith Buchanan, Bart., 
on Nov. 24th, 1882. There seems to be a line of country across 
this part of Scotland where rare things turn up, witness :-— =■ 
Desert Chat, at Alloa; Blue-throated Warbler, Isle of May; 
Great Grey Shrikes, commonly ; and others. (See General 
Remarks, infra.) 

Sternin^. — In spring. Terns arrived at breeding haunts at 
Whalsey on May 19th, on island, all day long ; came from S.E., 
with S.E. wind and clear; seen again on 28th (same date as 
1881). At Sumburgh Head on June 2nd, and five on 6th. At 
Cromarty, Lesser Tern arrived at 2 p.m. on June 11th, strong 
N. and clear ; and more on 15th. In autumn, Whalsey, Sum- 
burgh Head, Pentland Skerries, Cromarty, Isle of May. Earliest, 
for two minutes or so heard passing over the lights at 10.30, at 
Sumburgh Head, light E. airs and thin haze. On Aug. 15th all 
left Whalsey, light S. breeze, haze and fog. " Leave Pentland 
Skerries about Aug. 30th." Lesser Tern left Cromarty on Aug. 
29th ; three seen flying south" at Sumburgh Head on Sept. 4th 
(the only record in that month this year). One more record on 
Nov. 26th at Pentland Skerries, a flock on island all day. Two 
species. Note. — Look out for the Sandwich Tern, — a large Tern, 
much larger than the Common Tern; goes up the Fife and 
Forfar coasts in spring. — J. A. H. B. 

Larid^. — In spring, " Chasers " (Skuas), one on May 28th, 
at Portland Skerries ("rare here"), E. S.E. breeze. ("Picked 
up limpets thrown at it by the men.") He speaks of these 



EAST COAST OF SCOTLAND. 25 

as " Chasers," but in autumn of " Skuas or Norwegian Gulls, 
very rare." Of Skuas there are four species known in Scotland, 
viz., the Great Skua, or Bonxie of Shetland ; the Kichardson's 
Skua, or commonest species ; the Long-tailed, or Buffon's Skua, 
with very long centre tail-feathers ; and the Pomatorhine Skua, 
with curious recurved tail-feathers. Perhaps this note may be 
of service in future in separating them. The Bonxie and the 
Pomatorhine are rare. In autumn. Skua, or "Dirty Allan," at 
Isle of May on Oct. 15th, one seen, and well described ; and three 
seen of " Skua," or ''Norwegian Gull," at Pentland Skerries on 
19th, and again on 29th. Kittiwakes are recorded, Aug. 5th, at 
Isle of May ; large numbers. Note. — Most of birds breeding on 
Isle of May had left by this time, but a number of Kittiwakes 
remain still; all left by 25th, however. Great Black-backed 
Gulls noted passing S. past Isle of May on Aug. 13th. " Large 
White Gulls" (glaucous?) often wheeling round, Aug. 25th, for 
two or three days ; and a large flight came from N., and flew S. 
past Isle of May, on Oct. 24th. " Iceland Gulls " at Sumburgh 
Head, on Dec. 1st and 8th, after gales and rain. Gulls, 
enormous numbers (and Gannets) passed Isle of May, Sept. 30th. 
Herring Gulls, a movement S. past Isle of May all day, on 10th. 
Lesser Black-backed Gulls (called " Lady Ann Gulls ") flying 
S.E., and numbers on the 14th and 18th. Iceland Gulls (with 
Swans), two seen at Sumburgh Head, Dec. 25th, and one (last 
record) on Dec. 8th. The Larger Glaucous Gull is not always 
easily distinguished from the Lesser Iceland Gull ; both being 
very white, however, and are in relationship to one another as 
the Great Black-backed Gull is to the Lesser Black-backed Gull. 
Land Notes. — At Lerwick a large flock of Common Gulls passed 
northward in the evening, flying very low, on Oct. 13th. — 
(J. T. G.) 

Pkocellartid^. — One Stormy Petrel record ; two seen at 
noon at Auskerry on Sept. 29th ; light variable breezes. 

Alcid^. — In spring, records from Whalsey, Sumburgh Head, 
and Isle of May. On Feb. 1st, large numbers of Eazorbills and 
Marrots appeared at Isle of May, light S. breeze ; and again on 
March 18th; and a great increase on May 3rd; light S.E. 
Black Guillemots appeared at Whalsey during the night of 
March 2nd, with light E. S.E. breeze, and clear (called " Ty sties "). 
At Sumburgh Head, Guillemots (or *' Marrots ") arrived on 

E 



26 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

March 18th, a fortnight later than in 1881. In autumn, a 
general migration of Rock Birds, hetween Aug. 13th and 18th, 
during a fog (Why do birds apparently often choose a fog to 
depart in?), light S.E. (or is it always more to do with direction 
of the wind at the time?). See back. At Pentland Skerries, 
continuous streams of Guillemots flying E. through the N. 
Pentland Firth. Little Auks, one in E. gale on Nov. 16th, close 
to Isle of May, and more resting on 18th ; and a few in a severe 
snowstorm on Dec. 7th, at same place. Four species of Alcidce, 
Of unknown birds I have left out notices this year, though 
keeping note of them for further use, as they may come to be 
identified later. 



( 27 ) 



EAST COAST OF ENGLAND. 



Printed forms of enquiry and letters of instruction were sent 
to thirty-six lighthouses and light-vessels on the East Coast of 
England, and two stations on the Channel Islands, — thirty-eight 
altogether, against thirty-six in 1881, — and returns have been 
received from thirty, a result which is very encouraging. 

Independent reports have also been sent in from Heligoland, 
Seaton-Carew, and Kedcar, Flamborough, Spurn, North-East 
Lincolnshire, and Northrepps, making a total of thirty-seven 
reporting stations, against thirty-two in 1881. 

I have again to thank H. Gatke, T. H. Nelson, C. Donald 
Thompson, Matthew Bailey, William Eagle Clarke, H. Bendelack 
Hewetson, M.D., and J. H. Gurney, jun., for their general kind 
co-operation and assistance in the enquiry. 

Special thanks are also given to all my kind and painstaking 
observers on the lighthouses and light-vessels whose names are 
given in the report. While thanks are due to all, it may perhaps 
be not invidious to mention the very excellent returns received 
from the Fame Island stations, the Longstone and Inner Fame 
lighthouses, no less than eleven well-filled schedules having been 
sent in. 

The east coast stations are as follows, those making returns 
being marked with a star (*) :— 



*Longstone l.h. + 

* Inner Fame l.h. 

*No. 5 Buoy, Teesmouth l.v 
'i'^Coquet Island l.h. . . . 
^Whitby High l.h. ... 
^Flamborough Head l.h. 
*Spurn L.H. ... 

* Spurn (Newsand) l.v. 
=i=Outer Dowsing l.v. . . . 



Thomas 0. Hall & James W. Parsons. 
Thomas H. Cutting. 
Henry Harbord. 
William Evans. 
John Odgers. 
Charles Hood. 
James B. Smith. 
W. Edwards. 
William Stock. 



f For nature of light, and position and description of station, see report 
for 1880. 



28 



REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 



=:• Inner Dowsing l.v. ... 
-Dudgeon l.v. 
-Llyn Wells l.v. 
=:^Hunstanton l.h. 
=:^Cromer l.h. ... 
'-Hasbro' l.v. ... 

Leman & Ower l.v 

Hasbro' l.h 

*Newarp l.v. ... 
-Winterton l.h. 
=:=Cockle l.v. ... 
*Corton L.v. ... 
-Orfordness l.h. 
=- Ship wash l.v. 
-Languard Point l.h. 
-Galloper l.v. 

Kentish Knock 
-Swin Middle l.v. 
-Tongue l.v. ... 

Nore L.v. 

North Foreland l.h. 

North Sand Head l.v. 

*Gull L.v. 

-South Sand Head l.v. 
-East Side l.v. 

South Foreland l.h. 
'-^Hanois l.h. (Guernsey) 

Casquets l.h. (Alderney) 



... William King. 
... Thomas Dale. 

The Principal. 
. . . William Westmoreland. 

Eichard Comben. 
John Nicholas & B. Darnell. 



ornelius Campbell & William Rees (mate). 
John Watson. 
Samuel Pender & Charles Perfrement. 
... William John Cotton. 

Wm. Wilby Woodruff. 

... William Bonken. 

Owen Boyle. 
... William Littlewood. 

... Thomas Barrett. 
... John Webber. 



Francis Harvey & Joseph Jenkins. 
J. C. Leggett & George Woodward. 
Edward le Gallais & Thomas Rees. 

... Charles Williams. 



SEPARATE REPORT ON EACH SPECIES. 

Mistletoe Thrush, Turdus viscivorus, Linn. — Longstone l.h., 
Nov. 10th and 11th, N.W. to N.N. E., several each day, with Ring 
Ouzels. 

Song Thrush, T. imisicus, Linn. — Spring, 1882 : Heligoland, 
Feb. 21st, Mr. Giitke remarks, " musicus : some in my garden, 
25th, S.S.W., several. March 2nd, a few. April 12th, S.S.W., 
a few; 22nd, pretty numerous; on 23rd, S.S.E. and S., with 
Ring Ouzels, the two in departing mounting up in the atmo- 
sphere till lost to sight ; 29th, some also with Ring Ouzels." 
Cromer l.h.. May 14th, two killed against lantern at midnight. 
Autumn ; Heligoland, Sept. 13th, first Thrushes, and at intervals, 



EAST COAST OF ENGLAND. 29 

but sjDaringly to November ; * and the whole of this latter month 
along with Fieldfares almost every night pouring overhead ; 
during daytime rarely any. On the English coast, from the 
Inner Fame l.h., Sept. 27th, to the Galloper l.v., Dec. 20th, 
twenty from 8 to 9 p.m., two struck and killed ; and at the former 
station they continued to j)ass through December, and from 
Jan. 8rd to 15th in 1883, along with Fieldfares and Blackbirds. 
The great rush was on the nights of 12th and 13th October, very 
great numbers being observed at stations from the Longstone 
L.H. to Galloper l.v., easterly winds, fog and drizzling rain over 
North Sea. 

Eedwing, T.iliacus, Linn. — Spring, 1882 : Great Cotes, second 
week in March, returning to coast. Autumn : First, South Sand 
Head l.v. (Goodwin), Sept. 28th, forty to fifty to N.W. Long- 
stone L.H., Oct. 8th ; Spurn, 13th and 25th, adult males ; "rush " 
Oct. 13th. Heligoland, Oct. 18th, S.E., great many; 19th, mul- 
titudes passing overhead, and at intervals to Nov. 7th. 

Fieldfare, T. pilaris, Linn. — Spring, 1882 : Heligoland, Jan. 
17th and 18th, W., hazy, great many to E. ; Feb. 20th and 21st, 
small flights, twenty to thirty ; March 2nd, great flights overhead. 
Great Cotes, April 10th, flock, 120 to 150. Autumn : Heligoland, 
Sept. 13th, S. — S.W., thunderstorm with heavy rain, a very great 
flight ; all through November at night with Thrushes. On 
English coast. Fame Inner l.h., Sept. 27th, one, and subse- 
quently at intervals to end of the year. Whitby l.h., Oct. 12th, 
all night ; 13th, less. Kush from 11th to 14th December between 
Fame Islands and Teesmouth, and again 13th to 15th January, 
1883, but are not recorded anywhere south of Humber. 

Blackbird, T. merida, Linn. — Spring, 1882 : Dudgeon l.v., 
Feb. 8th, 6 p.m., with Larks. Heligoland, Feb. 21st, N.N.W. to 
N., "some in garden"; 25th, S.S.W., some; March 13th and 
14th, a few. Cromer l.h., March 17th, 11 p.m., one struck. 
Autumn : Heligoland, last week in October to end of November. 
English coast, first, Hanois l.h. (Guernsey), Sept. 19th, 10 p.m., 
to Jan. 15th, at Inner Fame l.h. Great "rush," nights of 
Oct. 10th and 13th; second "rush" Nov. 11th, Spurn l.v., 
Hanois l.h., 11th, midnight, and 13th all night; third "rush," 
Fame Inner l.h., Dec. 13th, 14th and 15th, and at same station 



* Mr. Giitke's notes are not continued beyond Nov. 30th. 



30 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

through December and in less numbers to Jan. 15th, 1883. At 
Great Cotes during night of Sept. 28th, S.W. to W., rain, great 
many young cocks came in. Swin Middle l.v., Oct. 6th, from 
7 p.m. to 3 a.m., about one hundred came to lantern and twenty 
were killed, all young cocks. Spurn l.v., Nov. 11th, noon, large 
flock from S.E. to N.W. Spurn, Oct. 25th, adult males. 

King Ouzel, T. torqiiatus, Linn. — Spring : Fame Inner l.h., 
April 23rd and 24th, one each day. Heligoland, April 22nd, 
many ; 23rd, same ; and on 29th, some. Autumn : Heligoland, 
Sept. 17th, E. — N.E., calm, some ; and at intervals to Nov. 7th, 
an unusually late date, which, however, corresponds with arrivals 
on English coast ; Sept. 10th, at Cromer, to Nov. 10th and 11th, 
at Longstone l.h., several afternoon of each day. Great rush 
Oct. 12th and 13th from the mouth of the Tees to Spurn, old 
cock birds. Were very numerous in the neighbourhood of Spurn 
all through October, all being mature males. 

Common Wheatear, Saxicola oenanthe (Linn.). — Spring : Fame 
Inner l.h., March 22nd, 1882, 3 p.m., two. Spurn, 29th, many. 
Heligoland, April 8th, numerous fine old males ; 12th, some at 
lighthouse. At 5th Buoy Tees l.v., April 1 0th to 29th, several 
coming from E.S.E. towards land, wind N.E. to N.W. Autumn : 
Heligoland, June 29th, pretty numerous, young birds of the year. 
On the English coast, from Aug. 12th, at the Fame Inner l.h., 
several, to Spurn, Oct. 7th, E., rain, evening, several round lantern. 
Passed across Heligoland in large numbers in September ; some 
on Oct. 10th, ** great old males." 

Eastern Pied Chat, S, morioy Ehr. — Heligoland, early in June, 
a fine adult male shot. 

Whinchat, Pratincola rubetra (Linn.). — Great Cotes, August, 
last week, some number of young birds. Spurn, Oct. 15th, all day. 
Hehgoland, from Aug. 6th, young birds, and throughout month. 

Stonechat, P. mibicola, — Spring : Heligoland, Feb. 27th, 1882, 
two or three ; 28th, several ; March 1st, one fine old male. 
Autumn : Great Cotes, first week in September, many young ; 
October and November, old birds, sparingly. 

Kedstart, Ruticilla phamicurus (Linn.). — Spring : Inner Fame 
L.H., April 22nd and 23rd, some with Wheatears. Autumn: 
Spurn, Sept. 7th, one. Longstone l.h., 14th, N.E., 5 p.m., on 
rocks. Yarmouth, 22nd, a few ; and from Oct. 7th to 13th a few 
from the Fame Islands southward to Spurn. Have been com- 



EAST COAST OF ENGLAND. 31 

paratively scarce compared with the large numbers which accom- 
panied the Wheatears on their southward migration up the coast 
in the autumns of 1880 and 1881. Across Heligoland from Aug. 
10th to first week in October; on the 5th, great many, with 
Wheatears, wind E., fresh. 

Blackstart, R. titys (Scop.). — Heligoland, March 13th to 
14th, one ; 17th, eight to ten ; and to April 8th, daily, some. 
Autumn : Spurn, Oct. 29th, one, adult female ; stomach con- 
tained remains of Coleoptera, entire ants, and two large seeds. 
Migrates earlier in the spring and later in the autumn than the 
Kedstart. 

Red-spotted Bluethroat, Cyanecula suecica (Linn.). — Heligo- 
land, Sept. 16th, E.N.E., in great numbers, with Redstarts, Gold- 
crests, Wheatears, &c. ; 20th, S.E., fresh, many; 23rd, very 
numerous. At Spurn, Sept. 11th, two immature, one obtained. 
It appears yet to be an open question with ornithologists whether 
the young of suecica are distinguishable from those of leucocyana 
in the plumage of the first year ; the Spurn bird therefore may 
be an example of the Central European form, the White-spotted 
Bluethroat. 

Redbreast, Erithacus riihecula (Linn.). — Spring: Heligoland, 
March 13th and 14th, several ; April 8th, 22nd and 23rd, some. 
Autumn : across island, from Sept. 8th, N., calm, overcast, 
through October, in large numbers ; great rush, Oct. 17th, 18th 
and 19th ; again on 27tb and 28th. At Orfordness and Languard 
Point lighthouses and Ship wash l.v., on Sept. 20th, and from 
Oct. 6th to 25th between the Longstone l.h. and East Goodwin 
L.V., in great numbers. Great rush Oct. 8th, and again night of 
13th at many stations and in large numbers. At the Galloper 
L.V., on 6th, with Wrens. 

Sylviin^. — Whitethroat, Sylvia cinerea (Linn.), Hanois l.h., 
April ] 6th, 3 a.m., some killed. Heligoland, April 22nd and 23rd, 
S.S.E. and S., some. Spurn l.h.. May 7th, 11 p.m., misty, rain, 
one killed. Cromer l.h., June 17th, 9.50 p.m., 6 a.m., two and 
a Wren killed. Autumn : Cromer l.h., July 18th, 3 a.m., S.W., 
seven stunned. During September and first week in October at 
several stations during night. Blackcap, S, atricapilla (Linn.), 
Heligoland, April 23rd, some ; 28th, many. Lesser Whitethroat, 
S. curriica (Linn.), also some. Heligoland, in the autumn. White- 
throats on Aug. 6th, and through September in great numbers 



82 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

to Oct. 7tli. Garden Warbler from Aug. 19tb to end of September. 
Blackcap as late as Oct. 27tb. 

Golden-crested Wren, Reguhis cristatus, Koch. — Spring, 1882 : 
Heligoland, March 13th and 14th, several, and on to April 12th. 
Autumn : the autumn of 1882 will be long remembered amongst 
ornithologists from the extraordinary immigration of Goldcrests 
on to the east coasts of Scotland and England. On the east coast 
of England the migration extended over ninety-two days, com- 
mencing Aug. 6th. Cromer l.h., midnight, two stunned against 
lantern, and a week later at Kedcar, Aug. 13th, wind S.W., forty 
to fifty, at 8 a.m., seen on the breakwater, and forward, at 
many stations and in immense numbers, to Nov. 5th, Cockle 
L.V., 5 a.m., one caught against glass. They arrived some- 
what sparingly in August and through September, and day 
after day in enormous numbers in October ; in this month they 
are recorded at twenty-one stations between the Fame Islands 
and the Hanois l.h., off Guernsey. There appear to have been 
two great rushes, one on the night of Oct. 7th and morning of 
8th, and again on night of 12th and morning of 13th, the latter 
with the Woodcock.* Many also are likewise reported during the 
month to have alighted on fishing-boats, steam-vessels, &c., in the 
North Sea. At Heligoland, on Oct. 8th, all the island swarmed 
with them ; they had also been exeeedingly numerous there from 
Sept. 8th, continuing also to arrive and depart throughout 
October, and on the night from 28th to 29th Mr. Gatke remarks, 
** a perfect storm of Goldcrests we have had, — poor little souls ! — 
perching on the ledges of the window-panes of the lantern of our 
lighthouse, preening their feathers in the glare of the lamps ; on 
the 29th all the island swarmed with them, filling the gardens 
everywhere, and over all the cliff — hundreds of thousands ; by 
9 a.m. most of them had passed on again." On English coast, 
Fame Inner l.h., Oct. 8th, ''never remember seeing so many at 
one time." Whitby l.h., 8th and 12th, "great rush." Flam- 
borough, 7th to 14th, "never more seen." Spurn, 7th to 8th, 
"in turnip-fields, hedges, and everywhere, never more seen." 
Great Cotes, 8th, great many everywhere, and even on the piles 
of timber on the dock-quays and timber-yards at Grimsby. 
Dudgeon l.v., 12th, " flock to W." Cromer l.h., 10th and 12th, 

* At this date the stream of Goldcrests extended quite across England, 
the Irish Channel, and into Ireland. 



EAST COAST OF ENGLAND. 33 

latter night 'Marge flocks," and at other stations, too numerous 
to detail, in large numbers. General direction E. to W., and 
E.S.E. to W.N.W., winds easterly over North Sea nights of 7th 
and 12th, with fogs and drizzling rain on latter night. These 
small wanderers reached the land in a very exhausted state, and 
great numbers are supposed to have perished in mid-passage. 

It is curious that the Fire-crested Wren, R. if/nicapilliis (C. L. 
Brehm), has not been observed at Heligoland during the autumn, 
although generally it is tolerably numerous. 

At the Newarp l.v., in March and April, 1883, an immense mi- 
gration of various birds was observed almost day b}^ day ; amongst 
those on April 14th three Golden-crested Wrens going eastward. 

Phylloscopin^. — Spring : East Yorkshire, Chiffchaff, Phyl- 
loscopus collyhita (VieilL), March 13th. Willow Wren, P. trochilus 
(Linn.), Heligoland, April 22nd and 23rd, some. Autumn: Spurn 
and East Lincolnshire, first week in September, many; latest. 
Spurn, Oct. 25th. Chiffchaff also at Spurn on 29th. Heligoland, 
Willow Wren, Aug. 15th, some, and forward in great numbers to 
Oct. 19th. Chiffchaff, Sept. 21st, and a great number at intervals 
to Oct. 27th. Wood Wren, P. sihilatrix (Bechst.), Oct. 27th, one. 
Yellow-browed Warbler, P.superciliosm (Gm.), Oct. 23rd, W., one ; 
27th, S.W., one seen. 

Acrocephalin^. — Spring : Spurn, May 29th, 11 p.m., misty, 
two Keed Warblers, Acroce2:)halus streperus (Yieill.), killed against 
lantern ; Spurn, Aug. 20th, midnight, three old males killed ; 
Great Cotes, Sept. 2nd, in bean-fields. On Sept. 12th, 1881, two 
Grasshopper Warblers, Lociistella ncevia (Bodd.), were killed in the 
night against the lantern of Spurn lighthouse (omitted in report 
for 1881). Heligoland, Sept. 19th, one Grasshopper Warbler. 

Hedgesparrow, Accentor modularis (himi.). — Spring: Heligo- 
land, March 12th, some ; 13th and 14th, some ; 20th to April 12th, 
daily some. Autumn : At Spurn and in East Lincolnshire great 
numbers were observed during the first fortnight in September. 
Spurn, Oct. 8th, most abundant, and on the Lincolnshire side, 
same date, extraordinary numbers ; in some localities, as stack- 
yards and marsh hedgerows, swarming. Heligoland, Sept. 20th, 
S.E., beginning to arrive; 22nd, great many; on Oct. 6th and 
7th, marvellous numbers ; also on 8th, and continuing to arrive 
and pass forward in very great numbers up to the 29th. It will 
be seen that their extraordinary abundance at Spurn and in 

V 



34 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

East Lincolnshire on Oct. 8th corresponds with the immense 
flight at HeHgoland at the same period, Oct. 6th, 7th and 8th. 
At Languard Point, on March 1st, 1883, a large flock was seen 
at 12.30 p.m., going eastward. 

Bearded Eeedling, Panurus biarmicus (Linn.). — Heligoland, 
Oct. 9th, S.S.E., later thick and hazy, one, a male. 

Paridje. — Autumn : Heligoland, Blue Titmouse, Parus cceru- 
leus, Linn., Sept. 20th, heginning ; Oct. 23rd, some. Great 
Titmouse, P. major, Linn., Oct. 7th, a sprinkling; 8th, numerous ; 
14th, great many. Coal Titmouse, P. ater, Linn., one on Oct. 15th ; 
Paridce continuing to pass up to 29th. Languard Point l.h., 
Oct. 29th, one Long-tailed Titmouse. Galloper l.v., Oct. 8th, one 
Titmouse dead on deck. Fame Inner l.h., Oct. 13th, E.S.E., 
Great and Blue Titmouse, old males, many. 5 Buoy Tees l.v., 
13th, 3 p.m., five on hoard. Newarp l.v., several on deck, with 
Goldcrests and Redbreasts. Two '' rushes," Oct. 8th "and 13th, 
with Goldcrests. 

Common Wren, Troglodytes paiTulus, Koch. — Spring : Flam- 
borough L.H., March 18th, W., many round lantern, several 
struck. Hunstanton l.h., 17th, 3 a.m., S.W., one caught against 
lantern. Corton l.v., April 14th, one, E. to W. Cromer l.h., 
June 17th, 9.50 p.m., two struck, one killed. Autumn : Heligo- 
land, Oct. 9th, S.S.E., calm, a great many; 14th, many. Flam- 
borough L.H., Sept. 15th, Spurn l.h., 20th, Galloper l.v., 21st, 
and Shipwash l.v., 26th, a great many, both during day and 
night. Oct. 7th to 8th and 12th to 13th, great rushes at six 
stations from Fame Islands to Galloper l.v. ; at the latter on 
night of 12th many round lantern, and night of 13th, 8 p.m. to 
daybreak of 14tli, with many other birds, Larks, Starlings, 
Thrushes, and two Robins — altogether many thousands of birds ; 
160 of various species picked up on deck, and it is calculated one 
thousand struck and went ovei'board. 

MoTACiLLiD^. — Spring : Heligoland, Feb. 20th, 1882, Pied 
Wagtail, Motacilla liiguhris, Temm., one fine old male, " never so 
early ; once I got one on Feb, 28th " ; April 23rd, Blue-headed Wag- 
tail, M.flava, Linn., some ; Yellow Wagtail, M. raii, Bp., one ; 28th, 
flava pretty numerous. Inner Fame l.h., March 29th, one Pied 
Wagtail. 5 Buoy Tees l.v., 28th and 29th, 8 a.m. to 3 p.m., great 
many in flocks of about twenty, flying S.E. to N.W. Whitby l.h., 
23rd, many. Autumn : Heligoland, Aug. 14th, White Wagtail, M. 



EAST COAST OF ENGLAND. 35 

alba, Linn., some ; Sept. 9th, M.jiava, many. Great Cotes, Sept. 
2nd, Grey Wagtail, M. melanope, flocks of twenty to thirty in bean- 
fields ; only one old bird seen. Spurn, 7th, several. Heligoland, 
April 26th, W.N.W., Kichard's Pipit, Anthiis richardii, VieilL, 
one, a small male bird ; 28th, one male, very pale, but not faded 
or abraded. Autumn : Heligoland, Sept. 28th, S.W., fresh, 
A. richardii, a few; Oct. 8th, a few shot. Meadow Pipit, A. 
pratensis (Linn.), Sept. 7th, potato-fields crowded with them, 
and up to Oct. 19th a great many ; Oct. 17th, marvellous num- 
bers. Tree Pipit, A, trivialis (Linn.), Sept. 19th to Oct. 11th, 
numerous. Eock Pipit, A. ohscurus (Lath.), some with pratensis. 
Great Cotes, Sept. 2nd, Meadow and Tree Pipits in small flocks 
in bean-fields. Inner Dowsing l.v., Sept. 12th, fifty Titlarks 
during day. Fame Inner l.h., Nov. 20th, 2 p.m., sixty to S.W. 
Laniid^. — Spring: Spurn, May 28th. Ked-backed Shrike, 
Lanius collurio, Linn., two, male and female, night of 27th or 
morning of 28th. Autumn : Great Grey Shrike, L. excubitor, 
Linn., Spurn, Sept. 18th, one ; 19th, one ; and several during 
the first fortnight in October. Heligoland, Oct. 5th, L. major, 
one, a second during day ; 15th, one ; 18th, L. excubitor, one, an 
old male. 

Waxwing, Ajiipelis gamdus, Linn. — Heligoland, Nov. 21st, 
one female. Seaton Carew, Jan. 5th, 1883, several seen near 
Middlesborough and Guisborough, some shot. Cleethorpes, near 
Grimsby, early morning, 15th, one in a garden close to coast ; 
same time, one near Wragby, Lincolnshire ; 17th, large flocks, 
several scores, near Goole, fourteen obtained. Several also in 
Norfolk near East Coast early in 1883. 

MusciCAPiD^. — Pied Flycatcher, M. atricapilla, Linn. — Heli- 
goland, June 27th, pretty numerous, young, and forward to Sept. 
20th in large numbers ; during the latter time with many Spotted 
Flycatchers, M. grisola. Spurn, Sept. 12th, Pied Flycatchers, a 
few, very small birds comparatively, measuring one inch less in 
length than those obtained in 1881. The Common Flycatcher 
was last observed in North Lincolnshire on Sept. 25th. ''Fly- 
catchers " are frequently mentioned as occurring round the 
lanterns at night ; it is, however, impossible to say what birds 
are intended, as the term is used indiscriminately for many of 
the small insect-eating birds. 

HiRUNDiNiD^. — Swallow, H, rustica, Linn. — Spring : First at 



36 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

Hunstanton l.h., April 13tli, several. Heligoland, April 23rd. 
Longstone l.h., Ma}^ 1st. Autumn : Heligoland, August to Oct. 
31st, Tivitli House Martins at the latter date. Sand Martins 
crossed the island on Aug. 15th, and large numbers of both 
rustica and urhica from Sept. 13th to 19th. On East Coast of 
England, Great Cotes, Aug. 12th, dusk, starlight, about one 
hundred N.E. to S.W. ; main body passed up the coast in 
September, and very few seen after first week in October. The 
last occurrences are North-East Lincolnshire, Nov. 8th, two at 
Laceby. Flamborough, Nov. 11th, N., cold, two about light- 
house. Patrington, Yorkshire, on Oct. 27th I saw ten or twelve 
House Martins hawking in the village street. 

Goldfinch, Carduelis elegaiis, Steph. — Spring : Spurn, April 
20th, 11 a.m., six from S. remaining all day. Autumn : Spurn 
and East Lincolnshire, some in October. Heligoland, Oct. 16th, 
a few. 

Siskin, Chrysomitris spiniis (Linn.). — Seaton Carew, Durham, 
Oct. 19th, one. Spurn, 25th, a few. Heligoland, Oct. 16th and 
on to 23rd, some. 

Greenfinch, Ligurinus chloris (Linn.). — N. E. Lincolnshire, 
Feb. 5th, 1883, large flocks on stubbles near the coast. Great 
Cotes, Sept. 7th, large migratory flocks in bean-fields and on 
stubbles during month, feeding on seeds of Atriplex angustifolia 
and Polygonum avicidare, showing a decided preference for the 
latter. Languard l.h., Oct. 23rd, very large flock came in at noon. 

Hawfinch, Coccothraustes vulgaris, Pall.^-Inner Dowsing l.v., 
Oct. 20th, S.S.W. [No. 5J , two came on board and remained all 
night, then in the morning left, flying S.E. to N.W. At Heli- 
goland, Mr. Gatke says, " the Hawfinch here is a well-known 
customer, never in any numbers, but every spring and fall some, 
betraying itself forthwith by its peculiar call-note, so out of all 
proportion with its colossal beak." 

Common Sparrow, Passer domesticus (Linn.). — From Sept. 
23rd, Shipwash L.V., "flights to N.N.W. to Fame Inner l.v.," 
Nov. 2nd, eight House Sparrows, " seldom seen here." Altogether 
observed at twelve stations, with one exception, as above, all 
south of the Humber. Goodwin l.v., Sept. 27th to Nov. 14th, 
on ten days large and continuous flights to W., and in large 
numbers in October at other stations. 

Tree Sparrow, P, montanus (Linn.). — Spring: Heligoland, 



EAST COAST OF ENGLAND. 37 

March 20th, a score ; April 24th, daily; and 15th to 20th, some; 
29th, " eating off buds of gooseberries in garden." Gorton l.v., 
June 8th, one on board. Autumn : Shipwash l.v., Sept. 22nd, 
2 to 6 p.m., large numbers to S.W., to Spurn, Oct. 25th; alto- 
gether at seven stations south of the Humber in very considerable 
numbers in October. 

Chaffinch, Fringilla coelehs, Linn. — Gorton l.v., from Sept. 
28th, "several flocks during forenoon to W.," to Galloper l.v., 
Oct. 14th, 9 p.m. to 4 a.m., " many with Larks." Seven stations 
report Ghaffinches, all in October, between the Tees and South 
Sand Head l.v., Goodwins. Heligoland, Oct. 6th and 7th, enor- 
mous numbers crossed — hundreds of thousands. 

Brambling, F. moutif ring ilia, Linn. — Heligoland, March 13th 
and 14th, 1882, one each day ; April 8th a few, and on to 28th. 
Autumn: Longstone l.h., Sept. 21st, 10 a.m., N.E., fresh and 
stormy, several. Spurn, Oct. 9th, some ; 18th, an immense 
flock of males, extending two hundred yards in length, and flying 
as closely as a flock of Knots. Teesmouth, 12th and 13th, some. 
Heligoland, Sept. 4th, E. by N., some ; Oct. 19th, great many. 

Linnet, Linota cannabina (Linn.). — Scarcely any reported.* 
Lesser Kedpoll, L, rufescens (YieilL), a few in N. E. Lincoln- 
shire, first week in September. Spurn, October, several. Heli- 
goland, Oct. 24th, storm S.W., No. 11, one, ''first capture of 
species on island"; Nov. 7th, S.E., windy and heavy rain, one 
shot in garden, second specimen. Twite, L. flavirostris (Linn.), 
Heligoland, scarcely any during autumn. Spurn, Oct. 25th, 
some small flocks, examples obtained had very pink rumps. 

Common Bullfinch, Pyrrhida earopcBa_, Vieill. — Hasbro' l.v., 
Oct. 12th, 4 p.m., two S.E. to N.W. 

Common Crossbill, Loxia ciorvirostra, Linn. — Fame Inner 
L.H., July 15th, one found near lighthouse, had been dead some 
days. 

EMBERiziNiE. — Yellow Buutiug, E. citrinella, Linn., Hun- 
stanton L.H., Oct. 23rd, 10.30 a.m., great many round lighthouse. 
Ortolan Bunting, E. hortulana, Linn., Heligoland, April 28th 
and 29th, some. Meadow Bunting, E, da, Linn., Heligoland, 
March 8th, S.S.W., clear, warm and fine, a fine old male, the 
first after forty years. Keed Bunting, E. schoeniclus, Linn., 



^' East Coast of Scotland, vast rush in October (9tli to 23r(l}. See 
J. A. H. B., p. 14 of Report. 



38 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

Great Cotes, first week in September, many in bean-fields. 
Autumn : Heligoland, Aug. 14th, Ortolan Bunting, some ; 28th, 
numerous ; first fortnight in October, E. schoeniclus, great many 
daily ; 17th, great many, and to end of month. 

Snow Bunting, Plectrophanes nivalis (Linn.). — Spring : 
Heligoland, Feb. 28th, 1882, great many ; March 28th, many. 
5 Buoy Tees l.v., Spurn, and Inner Fame, in March ; large 
flocks at Spurn on 4th. Autumn : A few old birds in September ; 
7th and 8th, one each day at Skitter Haven, within the Humber. 
Young birds first at Great Cotes, Sept. 28th ; occurred at stations 
north of Humber in October, November, and December, to 
January 2nd. Teesmouth, Dec. 1st, large flocks preceding the 
heavy snow-storm on 5th. Heligoland, Oct. 24th, S.S.E., strong 
and increasing, thick, " with thousands of others during forenoon 
racing past overhead"; night, storm S.W. [No. 11] ; 29th, '*in 
great masses in the fields"; and at intervals great numbers to 
Nov. 21st. 

Sky Lark, Alauda arvensis, Linn. — Spring: Heligoland, Jan. 
18th, 1882, N.N.W., all night great many, all day thousands 
upon thousands over island, all to E. ; miles out at sea the same ; 
Feb. 8th and 9th, great numbers across island ; 10th and 11th, 
the same with Starlings, all to W. ; 15th, S.W., rain, from early 
morning and all day, thousands from the east. Starlings same, 
all very high; 25th, S.S.W., early, calm and fine, ''flights on 
flights" to E. by N. ; 28th, Woodlark, A. arhorea, Linn., ''a small 
party, the first " ; March 2nd, a flight. ' Spurn, March 27th, 
flocks of Sky Larks all day passing. Autumn : First at Galloper 
L.V., Sept. 20th, midnight to 4 p.m., " shoals," to Jan. 10th, 1883, 
at 5 Buoy Tees l.v. ; altogether at twenty-nine stations, crossing 
the whole east coast of England, and in immense numbers both by 
night and day, direction E. to-W., or S.E. to N.W. ; Oct. 7th and 
8th, great "rushes," again 10th and 13th, and again on 20th; 
Nov. 12th, and on Dec. 13th to 15th inclusive, in the latter case 
up the coast from N. to S., as well as directly inland from sea. 
Larks appear to have been tolerably equally distributed over the 
whole coast-line, and as usual to have crossed the North Sea in 
enormous numbers, far outnumbering any other species. At 
Heligoland, in the autumn, they^appear, from Mr. Gatke's notes, 
to have passed on Oct. 11th, "great many passing above fog," 
call-notes heard ; and subsequently in large numbers to Nov. 21st. 



EAST COAST OF ENGLAND. 39 

Shore Lark, Otocorys alpestris (Linn.) — Spring : Heligoland, 
March 20th, eight to ten ; April 8th, E. by N., great many flights 
of twenty or over; 9th, same; 11th, very numerous; 14th, 
flights of thirty to forty ; and to 24th, some daily. Autumn : 
Oct. 4th, great many; 6th, ''some" (that means with us here, 
say a hundred) ; and subsequently at intervals to 28th, when 
they passed by thousands ; Nov. 27th, many still passing over. 
Spurn, Oct. 26th, flock of seven ; November and December, 
tolerably abundant ; about eighty shot near Yarmouth in October, 
the greater portion being male birds. 

Starling, Starnus vulgaris, Linn. — Spring : April 4th, flocks 
to N. Autumn : First at Whitby, Aug. 3rd, 4th, and 5th, great 
many near lighthouse to Dec. 15th, at Spurn ; altogether at 
nineteen stations covering the east coast of England, the 
bulk crossing in October ; great rush from 10th to 13th inclusive, 
from E. to W. and to W.S.W. Heligoland, Oct. 10th, flights of 
sixty to seventy; 22nd, S. by E., flights of "hundreds of 
thousands," and great many to Nov. 13th. Kose-coloured Starling, 
Pastor roseus (Linn.), Sept. 24th, S.E., calm, one young bird. 

Common Jay, Garndus glandarius (Linn.). — Heligoland, Oct. 
6th, strong, clear, later stormy, " flights of hundreds " ; Oct. 7th, 
S.E., clear, not warm, blowing nearly a gale, "without inter- 
ruption thousands on thousands passing overhead like Crows " ; 
8th, S.E., fresh, clear, " actually still more than yesterday, over 
the sea north and south of the island, multitudes like a continual 
stream — never seen such masses " ; 15th, eight to ten. Mem. : 
*' Jays requiring strong, dry, clear east wind ; Tits and pratensis 
the same ; Chaffinches want east wind strong, but overcast, and 
cloudy sky." The great abundance of the Jay in our English 
woodlands has been remarked upon from many districts during 
the winter of 1882-83 ; more especially, however, south of a line 
drawn from Elamborough Head to Portland Bill, Dorset. 

Magpie, Pica rustica (Scop.). — Spurn l.h., March 24th, 
remained in neighbourhood three days. Weybourne, Norfolk, 
Oct. 16th, arrival of Magpies noticed. — J. H. G. 

Daw, Corvus monedula, Linn. — At several stations with Eooks 
in October and November. Heligoland, Oct. 6th, about one 
hundred ; 24th, towards evening, flights of about five hundred ; 
27th, one shot from a flock with light grey neck ; on this day all 
birds in great haste, flying as a rule very high ; enormous flocks 



40 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

of Jackdaws seen but as the finest dust ; of many birds only 
heard call-notes without being able to see them; wind S., S.E., 
and E. by S. 

Carrion Crow, C. corone, Linn. — First at Orfordness l.h., 
Sept. 23rd, seven to N.E. ; and at several stations from Fame 
Inner l.h. to Goodwin l.v., in October, November, and December; 
sometimes with Hooded Crows, occasionally in separate flocks. 
On Oct. 9th, at Spurn, Mr. Hewetson shot a Crow from a flock 
passing inland, which had a few white feathers under the]chin and 
some of the claws white. Heligoland, Oct. 27th, a small flight. 

Hooded Crow, C. comix, Linn. — Spring : Spurn l.h., March 
11th, to S., many all day. Corton l.v., from March 21st to 
April 14th, large numbers of Eooks and Hooded Crows going 
from W. to E. Heligoland, March 2nd, flights high over head 
to E. ; March 4th, same ; 12th, N.W., clear, great flights to E. ; 
13th and 14th, same ; and to 17th, pretty numerous daily ; 
April 8th, very many high overhead; 9th, same; 11th, great 
many. Longstone l.h., April 31st, eleven came on island, 
appeared much fatigued, and then left for land, mod. gale 
N.N.W. Inner Fame l.h., 16th and 17th, many to W.S.W. ; a 
great many Crows (Rooks ?) same time. Autumn : Orfordness 
L.H., Sept. 19th, first seen, one. In large numbers through 
October and November at stations from Fame Islands to Good- 
win light- vessels ; great rush Oct. 11th and 13th. Nothing 
special to note of migration across Heligoland in the autumn, 
which as usual was in immense numbers in October and 
November. As a rule, few Hooded Crows cross south of Lan- 
guard Point, and few Carrion Crows north of Spurn. Rooks and 
Jackdaws sparingly north of Spurn, and gradually increase 
southward ; and most plentiful at southern stations. 

Rook, C.frugilegus, Linn. — Spring: Heligoland. Feb. 22nd, 
N.W., a very great flight; 28^h, several flights going due E.; 
March 4th, same ; 13th and 14th, less. Autumn : Sparingly 
north of the Humber, and in large numbers at the southern sta- 
tions throughout October and November, and on to the middle of 
December. Immense numbers remain in North Lincolnshire 
during the winter, feeding in the lowlands on both sides of the 
Humber, and moving in the afternoon to the high wolds, where 
at dusk they retire to the great wpods to roost. 

Raven, C. corax, Linn. — Whitby l.h., May 20th, one, ''comes 
each year about this time." 



EAST COAST OF ENGLAND. 41 

Common Swift, Cypselus apus (Linn.). — Hunstanton l.h., 
May 22nd, several. Autumn : Spurn l.h., June 17th, 18th, and 
20th, great many to S., sometimes a flock remaining on gallery 
of lantern at night. Gorton l.v., Aug. 1st, many to W. Heli- 
goland, Aug. 14th, S., some. 

At the Inner Fame l.h., Aug. 19th, *' a very large Swift, 
supposed to be a foreigner, flying about island." About the end 
of July an Alpine Swift, C. melha, Linn., was shot by Mr. Wm. 
Rogerson, of Newcastle, at Alnmouth, Northumberland, and 
recorded at the time in the * Newcastle Journal,' Aug. 2nd, 1882, 
as 9J inches in length, and 21 inches between the tips of the 
wings ; and that it was identified by Mr. John Hancock. 

Common Nightjar, Caprimulgus europcsuSy Linn. — Spurn, 
Sept. 11th, one. 

Wryneck, Jynx torquilla, Linn. — Heligoland, April 23rd, 
several. 

Kingfisher, Alcedo ispida, Linn. — Great Cotes, Sept. 1st, 
several in marshes. Hasbro' l.v., 23rd, 10 p.m., one struck 
lantern and killed, was flying S.E. to N.W. 

Hoopoe, Upupa epopSy Linn. — Heligoland, April 23rd, one. 
Spurn, Aug. 18th, one shot on Kilnsea Warren. Inner Fame, 
Aug. 29th, one shot on mainland ; one also near Yarmouth in 
October. 

Cuckoo, Cuculus canorus, Linn. — Spurn, May 1st. Whitby, 
8th. Inner Fame, 11th. One on each occasion. 

Steiges, Owls. — Long-eared Owl, Asio otus (Linn.), Languard 
L.H., Oct. 26th, 4.30 p.m., one. Short-eared Owl, A. accipitrinus, 
Heligoland, scarcely any. On English coast also remarkably 
scarce ; a few during the first fortnight in October at stations 
from Eedcar to Languard Point ; appears to have come over at 
the same time as the Woodcocks, from Oct. 11th to 13th. 
Hasbro' l.v., Nov. 16th, one *' Grey Owl " at sunrise to W. 

Falconid^. — Heligoland, March 4th, 1882, S.E. to S.W. 
Greenland Falcon, Falco candicans, Gmel., a very fine white 
bird. Sparrowhawk, Accipiter nisus (Linn.)., Sept. 15th, great 
many over the sea north of the island, none on Heligoland ; 
19th, following flights of Chaffinches ; Oct. 5th, many with 
Kestrels also, and on to 12th. Sea Eagle, Halia'etus alhicilla 
(Linn.), Sept. 16th, Nov. 13th, 14th, and 20th, one each day. 
Peregrine Falcon, Falco peregrinus, Tunstall, Sept. 20th, some, 

G 



42 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

and many young Merlins. Merlin, F. cesaloii.y Nov. 12th, a 
very red-breasted old male obtained. Hen Harrier, Circus 
cyaneus (Linn.), Nov. 20th, one. On English coast. Kestrels, 
a few in September and October. Sparrowhawks from Aug. 3rd 
to September, and through October ; also Jan. 9th, 1883, Good- 
win L.V., one ; not unfrequently alight in the evening on the 
rigging of the light-vessels, leaving again at daybreak. One, 
caught on the Gorton l.v., Aug. 3rd, had a piece of copper wire 
round one leg. An Osprey was seen near Lowestoft on Oct. 7th; 
a Honey Buzzard shot at Welwick, near Spm-n, on Sept. 15th ; 
and another, Dereham, Norfolk, on Oct. 3rd ; a few Buzzards 
were seen about Spurn in October. Altogether the larger birds 
of prey have been extremely scarce during the autumn. 

Gannet, Sula bassana (Linn.). — Longstone l.h., March 15th, 
flocks to north from 10 a.m. to 4 p.m., and to end of month 
between the same hours ; also first week in April between same 
hom-s ; Oct. 20th to 24th, flocks flying north, old and young, but 
mostly old birds. Dudgeon l.v., Oct. 8th, eight off lightship all 
day. Orfordness, Dec. 6th to 7th, "flocks to W. along shore." 

Ardeid^. — Common Heron, Ardea cinerea, Linn., Aug. 6th, 
7 p.m., five to N. Hanois l.h., Sept. 17th, two to W., twenty to 
S.W. Bittern, Botaurus stellaris (Linn.), Hornsea, Dec. 22nd. 

Anatid^, Geese. — Fame Inner l.h., Feb. 9th, twenty-one 
Brent Geese to E.S.E. Kilnsea, Spurn, June 5th, eight large 
Grey Geese to S., flying very low. Longstone l.h., Oct. 15th, 
nine Wild Geese ; one, wounded against lantern and subsequently 
shot, was a Barnacle Goose, Bernicla leucopsis. Fame Inner, 
Nov. 13th, three Canada Geese shot from flock of eleven on one 
of the outlying islands ; large flocks of Grey Geese going south 
along coast early in December. 

Swans. — 5 Buoy Tees l.v., Aug. 5th, six young Swans in Tees. 
Newarp l.v., Oct. 26th, three Swans to W. Spurn l.h., Nov. 
28th, 9 a.m., ten passed close to lantern. Dudgeon l.v., 24th, 
fifty all white close past ship to W. Teesmouth, 24th, 9 a.m., six. 

Ducks. — 5 Buoy Tees l.v., April 25th, .twenty-five Sheldrake, 
Tadorna cornuta (Gmel.), seen in Tees. Inner Fame l.h., May 
2nd, one solitary King Eider, S. spectahilis (Linn.), first time seen 
this season. Longstone l.h., Sept. 4th, Scaup Duck flying N. 
Large flights of various Duck.6 seen on east coast at many 
stations in October to end of the year; direction of flight, 



EAST COAST OF ENGLAND. 48 

however, not sufficiently persistent to permit any deductions ; 
, juany doubtless were flocks changing their feeding-grounds. 
^ CoLUMBiD^. — Spurn, May 24th, two Turtle Doves, Turtur 
communis, Selh J. Gull l.v., July 9th, 7.30 p.m., twenty Wood 
Pigeons, C. palumhus, Linn., to N.W. Spurn, Sept. 7th, Turtle 
Dove, young. Fame Inner l.h., Dec. 20th, 10 a.m., two 
Wood Pigeons to E.N.E. 

Kallid^. — Inner Fame l.h., Sept. 12th, Landrail, Crex 
pratensis, Bechst., killed against lantern during night. Spurn, 
18th, one shot. 

Crane, Grus communis^ Bechst. — Heligoland, April 12th, one, 
not captured. 

Little Bustard, Otis tetrax, Linn. — Heligoland, one shot, first 
occasion. 

Charadriid^. — Spurn, May 30th, Turnstone, Strepsilas 
interpres (Linn.), small flock in full summer plumage. Spurn, 
first week in June, Dotterel, E. morinellus, four seen. The 
Golden Plover, C. plitvialis, Linn., was first seen at Fame Inner 
L.H., Aug. 17th ; small flocks on island ; on the same day also, in 
Great Cotes marshes, in summer plumage. Yarmouth, Sept. 
10th, four, partially in summer dress. Grey Plover, S. helvetica 
(Linn.), first at Teesmouth, Aug. 10th, two. Spurn, Sept. 7th, 
first seen ; on 16th, three large flocks, many members of each in 
full summer plumage. 5 Buoy Tees l.v., Oct. 15th and 16th, 
Grey Plover with Curlew, two to three hundred in flock. Whitby 
L.H., Nov. 14th, one hundred or more. Immense flocks of Lap- 
wings, Vanellus vulgaris, Bechst., at Fame Islands, Sept. 25th 
and 26th, and subsequently at many other stations during the 
winter. Kentish Plover, jE, cantiana (Lath.), was obtained near 
Blakeney about Sept. 26th. Heligoland, young Golden Plover 
commenced passing, Aug. 9th ; during July and up to the end of 
the month, every night, great numbers of Numenius, Totanus, 
Tringa, and C. hiaticula, <fec., crossed ; on Aug. 25th, great 
numbers of Golden Plovers; on the 22nd, S.W., great many 
Dotterel, C. morinellus (Linn.) ; again Sept. 4th, great many 
Dotterel, 11 p.m., passing overhead E. to W., one flight taking 
ten minutes to pass. 

ScoLOPACiD^. — Eed-necked Phalarope, Phalaropus hyperhoreus 
(Linn.), Breydon, Norfolk, Sept. 4th, one shot, two seen. 
Common Snipe, Gallinago ccelestis (Frenzel), end of second week 



44 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

in March, 1882, N. E. Lincolnshire, returning in some numbers. 
Heligoland, March 2nd, one ; April 12th, S.S.W., a few. 
Autumn: Fame Inner l.h., Sept. 14th, Snipe to W. Orford- 
ness, Oct. 13th, 8 p.m., one killed. Flamborough l.h., Nov. 
16th, two struck and killed, strong S.E. gale. Gull l.v., Nov. 
3rd, about one hundred to W. Jack Snipe, G, gallinula (Linn.), 
Longstone l.h., Sept. 21st, E.N.E. to N.E., one killed against 
S.E. side lantern. Fame Inner l.h., Oct. 12th, two. Wood- 
cock, Scoloj)ax rusticulay Linn., Spurn, Sept. 18th, first Woodcock ; 
the great flight took place on the night of Oct. 12th, wind E., 
strong, fog and drizzling rain; on the morning of 13th at Fame 
Inner, 5 Buoy Tees l.v.,* Teesmouth, Coquet, Whitby, Flam- 
borough, Spurn, Yarmouth, and Orfordness, in some numbers ; 
specially so at Fame Inner, Teesmouth, Flamborough, and 
Spurn. Second flight, Teesmouth, Nov. 13th ; and at Whitby, 
11th ; Fame, Dec. 14th ; and Coquet, 14th. Woodcocks occurred 
at Heligoland on Oct. 26th, a few ; 29th, twenty to thirty shot ; 
Nov. 11th, some; and 21st and 30th, some. Dunlin, Tringa 
alpina, Linn., Great Cotes, Aug. 16th, night warm, close, 
thunder-storm, very dark, heavy rain from S.E., flocks of waders 
passing over. Dunlin and Kinged Plover. Curlew Sandpiper, 
T. siiharqiiata (Giild.), Spurn, Sept. 14th, a few. Ruff, Machetes 
pugnaxy Linn., Seaton Carew, Nov. 2nd, two Ruffs and a Reeve. 
Knot, T. canutus, Linn., Teesmouth, Aug. 11th, one ; 15th, 
three. Great Cotes, 27th, flock of about two hundred. Spurn, 
Sept. 6th, several ; plentiful by middle of month. Spurn l.h., 
Nov. 15th, 3 a.m., many round lantern. Hasbro' l.v., 16th, 
11 a.m., large flocks very high E. to W.S.W. Sanderling, 
Calidris arenaria (Linn.)., Spurn, May 31st, flocks, some in 
summer and others in transition plumage. Lincolnshire coast, 
Aug. 10th, flocks, thirty to forty, old and young together, 
near Somercotes. Green Sandpiper, Totanus ochropus (Linn.), 
Breydon, Aug. 15th, plentiful. Common Redshank, T. calidris 
(Linn.), scarce. Spotted Redshank, T. fuscus (Linn.), Brey- 
don, Aug. 15th, one, immature, shot. Greenshank, T. 
cancescens (Gmel.), Breydon, Aug. 15th, plentiful. Red- 
breasted Snipe, Macrorhamphus griseus (Gmel.), Aug. 15th, 
one shot at Cleethorpes, near Grimsby, a mature bird in moult 



* At this light-vessel a single bird passed, going west, at daybreak. 



EAST COAST OF ENGLAND. 45 

from the knot-like plumage of summer to the grey of winter. 
Bar- tailed Godwit, Limosa lapponica (Linn.), Teesmouth, Aug. 
13th, 4.30 a.m., five. Black-tailed Godwit, L. cegocephala (Linn.), 
Aug. 24th, four seen at Breydon, two in summer plumage. 
Whimbiel, Numenius phcBopus (Linn.), 5 Buoy, Tees l.v., April 
23rd, one N.W. to S.E. Great Cotes, July 27th, Whimbrel 
passing, first of the season. Teesmouth, Aug. 1st to 7th, two or 
three small flocks about ; and large flocks to E . early on morning 
of 16th. Common Curlew, N. arquata (Linn.), Heligoland, 
April 12th, from 10 p.m. to daylight, hundreds of thousands of 
Tringa, Numenius, Hcematopus, and the like flying over. Lincoln- 
shire coast, Aug. 10th, flocks of eight to ten young, on shore 
near Somercotes. South Sand Head l.v., Sept. 17th, twelve, 
the first seen, to N.W. 5 Buoy Tees l.v., Oct. 15th and 16th, 
flocks of two to three hundred passing. Whitby l.h., Oct. 15th, 
large flock round lantern for several hours, thick and dark. 
Cromer l.h., Oct. 13th, large flock round lantern. Spurn l.h., 
Nov. 15th, 3 a.m., many round lantern with Knots. Flamboro' l.h., 
16th, many round lantern ; and on Dec. 13th, all night with Larks. 

Sternin^, Terns. — Inner Fame l.h., April 20th, Sandwich 
Tern, Sterna cantiaca, Gmel., heard calling for first time. 
Longstone l.h.. May 3rd, first Sandwich Tern seen on island. 
Inner Fame l.h., May 2nd, Arctic Tern, Sterna macrura^ Naum., 
seen first time ; 4th, both together, flying round their breeding- 
stations. Inner Fame, Aug. 28th, most of Arctic and Sandwich 
Terns left their breeding-quarters. Longstone and Inner Fame, 
Sept. 6th and 7th, both species finally left island. 

Larin^, Gulls. — Heligoland, Jan. 17th, Greater Black-backed 
Gull, Larus marmus^ Linn., hundreds, all old birds ; and on 31st, 
the same, nearly without exception old birds ; Kittiwake, Rissa 
tridactyla (Linn.), same. Whitby, Feb. 12th, Herring Gulls 
came to the cliffs to breed, in 1881 ; it was on the 14th. Long- 
stone, March 15th, Gulls coming to nesting-quarters. Whitby, 
July 16th, young first seen on wing; Sept. 7th, old and young 
left. Great Cotes, Sept. 28th, Humber-flats covered with various 
Gulls. Whitby, Oct. 14th, large numbers seen at sea, going S. 
Spurn, in December, Iceland Gull, L. leiccopteruSy Faber, mature 
and immature, obtained. 

Stercorariin^, Skuas. — Fame Inner, Sept. 26th, Skuas seen 
in attendance on Black-headed Gulls. Teesmouth (Eedcar), 



46 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

Oct. 20th, five Skuas to E. Nov. 1st, Longstone, one. Have 
been remarkably scarce on the coast. 

Procellariid^, Petrels. — Coquet l.h., Oct. 14th, 7 p.m., one 
Stormy Petrel caught against glass and set at liberty again. 
Languard, 11th, one, 6.15 p.m. Spurn, 29th, one at edge of water. 

Alcid^, Auks. — Common Guillemot, Lomvia troile, (Linn.), 
Longstone l.h., Jan. 3rd, 1883, Guillemots flying in from sea to 
island; March 15th, 1882, assembling for breeding on islands; 
May 15th, Puffins assembling on islands ; Aug. 25th, Guillemots 
and Puffins have left their nesting-quarters on rocks ; Oct. 22nd, 
Little Auk, Mergulus alba, Linn., one seen ; Nov. 1st, two young 
Puffins seen. Inner Fame, April 1st, multitudes of Guillemots 
flying up to their nesting-quarters ; Nov. 18th, several Puffins 
and Guillemots off islands. Flamborough, Guillemots great 
many last week in January, towards headland ; Feb. 5th, great 
numbers going N. all morning ; Dec. 27th, first seen off coast, 
are passing and repassing daily in great numbers. 

CoLYMBiDiE, Divers. — Inner Fame, Sept. 6th, Great Northern 
Diver, C. glacialis, Linn., three to N. ; Dec, first week, Ked-throated 
Diver, C. septentrionalis, Linn., Black-throated Diver, C. arcticiLs, 
Linn., and Great Northern Diver, all three about the islands this 
week ; on 5th, fourteen Great Northern Divers to W. Longstone, 
Nov. 14th, two young Great Northern Divers off island fishing. 
Teesmouth, Oct. 31st, flock of Great Northern Divers passed at 
noon. 

PoDiciPiTiDiE, Grebes. — October, Sclavonian Grebe, Podiceps 
aurituSf Linn., adult in winter plumage shot in a timber pond 
at Hull ; Red-necked Grebe, P. griseigena (Bodd.), and Sclavonian 
Grebe, on Humber in October and November. 

The Committee are indebted to Professor Chr. Fr. Liitken, of 
the Universitetets Zoologiske Museum, Copenhagen, for a list of 
the birds killed against the lantern of the lighthouse of Stevns, 
on the projecting part of Zealand, marking the limit between 
the Baltic and the Gronsund Belt, in the autumn of 1882. 
Professor Liitken, in forwarding the list, remarked that his late 
lamented predecessor. Professor Reinhardt, made arrangements 
with a physician, Mr. Antander, residing at the small town 
of Storeheddinge, seven Danish miles south of Copenhagen, in 
the neighbourhood of Stevns Klint and the lighthouse of Stevns, 
for forwarding any birds found killed to the museum, with the 
following result : — 



EAST COAST OF ENGLAND. 



47 



April 



Stevns Fyk, Zealand, Denmabk, 1882. 

1 4th . Turdus musicus 2 . 

,, Saxicola cenanthe 2 males. 



May 



Sept. 



Oct. 



15th. 
19th. 



24th. 

29th. 

9th. 

11th. 

12tli. 
18th. 



21st. 



10th. 

2l8t. 



Sylvia ruhecula 

Emheriza miliaria . . . 
Numenius arquatus . . . 

Turdus 7nusicus 

Saxicola cenanthe 

Turdus iliacus 

Eynheriza passerina ... 

Turdus musicus 

Sylvia schmnobanus ... 
Luscinia philomela . . . 
Emheriza hortulana ... 
Muscicapa atricapilla 

Sylvia cinerea 

S. phragmitis 

S. rufa 

S. trochilus 

Tm'dus torquatus 

Sylvia ruhecula 

S. curruca 

Ruticilla phcenicwus . . . 

Sylvia ruhecula 

Turdus iliacus 2 

A lauda arvensis 4 

Regulus cristatus 2 

Emheriza schceniclus ... 1 



male. 



males and 3 females, 
caught alive. 



alive, f 



Mr. Gatke sends the following notes of an extraordinary 
migration of the Silver Gamma Moth, Plusia gamma^ across 
Heligoland in August, 1882 : — 

On Aug. 13th, at 1 a.m. till 4, thousands on thousands 
passed the Heligoland lighthouse, travelling E. to W. From 11 
p.m. on the 15th, till 3 a.m. on 16th, millions, like a snow-storm, 
all belonging to the same species, passed forward in the same 
direction. Again, on the 18th, from 11 p.m. till 3 a.m. on the 
19th, thousands on thousands were observed under the same 
circumstances. Some scores caught for identification were all 
in most perfect plumage ; no fading or abrasion. 



* Is often seen swarming around the lighthouse at the time of its 
migration — six or seven on this night flew against the panes without being 
killed, and two others were caught alive. About forty Kedbreasts and 
Wheatears were caught on the same night, but set at liberty again in the 
morning. On clear moonlight nights nothing at all is caught or found. 

f According to Mr. Antander were not sent to museum. 



48 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 



General Eemarks. 

The observations taken along the E. coast of England in the 
spring and autumn of 1882 have been such as to confirm the 
conclusions arrived at in previous reports. 

As in 1880 and 1881, the line of autumn migration has been 
a broad stream from E. to W., or from points S. of E. to N. of 
W., covering the whole of the E. coast. In 1880 a considerable 
proportion of the immigrants crossed at the more southern 
stations; in 1881 they covered the whole of the E. coast in 
tolerably equal proportions ; but in 1882 the stations N. of the 
Humber show a marked preponderance of arrivals. 

Although migration has extended over an unusually long 
period, commencing in July and continued with but slight inter- 
mission throughout the autumn and into the following year to 
the end of January, yet the great mass of immigrants arrived on 
our E. coast in October, and a large proportion of these during 
the first fortnight in the month. From Oct. 6th to 8th, inclusive, 
and again from the 12th to the 15th there was, night and day, 
an enormous rush, under circumstances of wind and weather, 
which observation has shown are most opposed to a favourable 
passage. During these periods birds arrived in an exhausted 
condition, and we have reasons for supposing, from the number 
reported as alighting on fishing-boats and vessels in the North 
Sea, that the loss must have been very considerable ; large 
flights also are recorded as having appeared round the lanterns 
of lighthouses and light-vessels during the night migration. 
From the 6th to the 9th, inclusive, strong E. winds blew over 
the North Sea, with fog and drizzling rain, and from the night 
of the 12 to 17th very similar weather prevailed. Mr. W. Little- 
wood, of the Galloper l.v., moored on the bank of that name 
forty miles S.E. of Orfordness, reports that on the night of Oct. 
6th, Larks, Starlings, Mountain Sparrows, Titmice, Common 
Wrens, Kedbreasts, Chaffinches and Plover were picked up on 
the deck, and that it is calculated five to six hundred struck the 
rigging and fell overboard ; a large proportion of these were 
Larks. Thousands of birds were flying round the lantern from 
11.30 p.m. to 4.45 a.m., their white breasts, as they dashed to 



EAST COAST OF ENGLAND. 49 

and fro in the circle of light, having the appearance of a heavy- 
fall of snow. This was repeated on the 8th and 12th, and on 
the night of the 13th 160 were picked up on deck, including 
Larks, Starlings, Thrushes and two Eedbreasts ; it was thought 
one thousand struck and went overboard into the sea. It is 
only on dark rainy nights, snow or fog, that these casualties 
occur ; when the nights are light, or any stars visible, the birds 
appear to give the lanterns a wide berth. 

Unquestionably the principal feature of the autumn migra- 
tions has been the enormous arrival of the little Gold-crested 
Wren. The migrations appear to have covered not only the E. 
coast of England, but to have extended southward to the Channel 
Islands and northward to the Faroes (see Eeport East Coast of 
Scotland, Harvie Brown). On the E. coast of England they are 
recorded at no less than twenty-one stations, from the Fame 
Islands to the Hanois l.h., Guernsey. The earliest notice is 
Aug. 6th, the latest Nov. 5th, or ninety-two days ; during the 
same period enormous numbers crossed Heligoland, more 
especially in October, and quite up to the end of the month. On 
the night from the 28th to 29th Mr. Gatke remarks, " We have 
had a perfect storm of Goldcrests, poor little souls, perching on the 
ledges of the window-panes of the lighthouse, preening their feathers 
in the glare of the lamps. On the 29th all the island swarmed 
with them, filling the gardens and over all the cliff, — hundreds 
of thousands ; by 9 a.m. most of them had passed on again." 

Not less remarkable was the great flight of the Common Jay 
past and over that island early in October, on the 6th, 7th, and 
8th ; thousands on thousands without interruption passing on 
overhead like Crows, N. and S. of the island too, multitudes 
like a continual stream, all going E. to W. in a strong south- 
easterly gale. It would have been an interesting fact if we had 
been able to correlate this migration of Jays with any visible 
arrival on our English coast, but in none of our returns is any 
mention made of the Jay. Mr. Matthew Bailey, of Flamborough, 
told me that on one evening early in October (the exact date he 
was not able to give) he had observed at dusk large flights of 
birds, about the size of Jackdaws, coming to land, and was 
struck with the good headway they seemed to make against a 
strong wind. It was too dark, however, to make out what they 
were. Subsequently I have received numerous notices speaking 

H 



60 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

of the extraordinary nuraber of Jays seen during the winter in 
our English woodlands. This seems especially to have been the 
case south of a line drawn from Flamborough Head to Portland 
Bill, in Dorset.* 

Extraordinary numbers of the Common Hedge Sparrow 
{Accentor modularis) — "the dunnock " of the English schoolboy, 
the ''blue Janet " of Scotland — passed over Heligoland in October, 
more especially on the 6th, 7th, and 8th ; and it is curious that 
on the 8th of the same month they swarmed in astonishing 
numbers, both at Spurn and in N.E. Lincolnshire. 

The Woodcock arrived on the east coast on the night of 
Oct. 12th, or early morning of the 13th; wind E., strong, fog, 
and drizzling rain. On the morning of the 13th they are recorded 
from nine stations, covering 250 miles of coast-line, from the 
Fame Islands to Orfordness.f It is fair to suppose that this, the 
" great flight " of the season, did not start from the same locahty, 
but from various parts of the opposite coast of Europe, — places 
widely apart. Both previous and subsequent to their passage the 
weather had been much of the same character over the North 
Sea. Why they should start simultaneously on this special 
evening, and how they managed to "keep touch," to use a 
military term, during a passage of several hundred miles across 
a stormy sea, in fog and drizzling rain, so as to arrive about the 
same time at their Tel-el-Kebir on our English sand-hills, is one 
of those points in the phenomena of migration which will 
probably take some time and more extended observations, 
especially on the op]30site coast-line, to clear up. 

An interesting entry in one of the returned schedules, that 
from the Inner Dowsing l.v., placed seventeen miles E. of 
Sutton, on the Lincolnshire coast, is that of two Hawfinches, 
which came on board on the evening of Oct. 20th, a strong 
S.S.W. wind blowing, and remaining all night, left again at 
daj^break, their course being from S.E. to N.W., the course 
followed by a large proportion of our immigrants. As far as we 
are aware this is the first notice of Hawfinjches having been seen 



* Common Jay. Additions and unusual numbers observed at Arden, on 
Loch Lomond side, subsequently reported by James Lumsden, Esq., is the 
only report of Jays I have got in Scotland. — J. A. H. B. 

I Also "great flight" same time, Tsle of May. East coast of Scotland 
report. 



EAST COAST OF ENGLAND. 51 

at sea. At Heligoland, Mr. Gatke says the species is a well-known 
customer, never in any numbers, but every spring and fall some, 
betraying itself forthwith by its peculiar call-note, so out of all 
proportion with its colossal beak. 

There are some birds occurring on our east coast year by 
year with tolerable regularity, which, during the autumn of 1882, 
have been remarkable for their scarcity. This has been the case 
with all the large raptorial birds, and especially with the Short- 
eared Owl, and Common Linnet and Twite. Their absence on 
migration has also been remarked upon in Heligoland. The 
Short-eared Owl also appears to have been specially scarce 
on the east coast of Scotland. (See East Coast of Scotland 
Eeport.) 

Our returns show very clearly that the spring lines of 
migration, followed by birds leaving our shores, are identically 
the same as those followed in the autumn, but of course in the 
reverse direction from W. and N.W. to E. and S.E. 

As this is the fourth report issued by the Committee, we 
may, perhaps, with the mass of facts at our disposal, be expected 
to draw deductions, which, if they do not explain, will serve 
at least to throw some light on the causes influencing the 
migration of birds. We might reasonably reply that the work 
undertaken by us was not to theorise, or attempt explanations, 
but simply to collect facts and tabulate them. This we have 
endeavoured to do in the shortest and simplest manner consistent 
with accuracy of detail. There is, however, one circumstance 
which can scarcely fail to present itself to those who have gone 
carefully into the reports issued by the Committee, namely, the 
marvellous persistency with which, year by year, birds follow the 
same lines of migration when approaching or leaving our shores : 
the constancy of these periodical phenomena is suggestive of 
some settled principle or law governing the movement. It is 
clearly evident, from the facts already at our disposal, that there 
are two distinct migrations going forward at the same time ; 
one, the ordinary flow in the spring and ebb in the autumn, 
across the whole of the western Palaearctic regions, which of 
course includes the British Isles, of a great migratory wave 
moving to and from the nesting-quarters of the birds in the 
coldest part of their range, N.E. in the spring and S.W. in the 
autumn. Quite independent of this there is a continual stream 



52 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

of immigrants, week by week and month by month, to the 
eastern shores of these islands, coming directly across Europe 
from E. to W., or more commonly from points S. of E. to others 
N. of W., and the reverse in the spring. These are mainly 
composed of those common and well-known species which 
annually make these islands their winter resort, and take the 
place of our summer birds : they come in one broad stream, 
cutting the line of ordinary migration at nearly right angles ; 
one flank brushes the Orkneys and Shetlands, pouring through 
the Pentland Firth, even touching the distant Faroes ; the 
southern wing crosses the Channel Islands, shaping its course 
in a north-westerly direction to the English coast. In our 
explanation of the causes which first induced, and perhaps still 
influences, this E. to W. migration, we must probably go back a 
long way in the history of the world, when the distribution of the 
land and water of continental Europe was very different to what 
it now is ; when there was no North Sea, and the western coast- 
line of Europe was represented by what is now known as the 
hundred -fathom line off' the West of Ireland, a coast which on 
the one side touched Scandinavia, and on the other was linked 
with the Spanish peninsula. Great as is now the contrast 
between the winters of Central Russia and those of these 
islands, the difference would then be much more marked, — 
arctic cold on one hand, and semi-tropical warmth on the 
other.* It requires then no stretch of imagination to believe 
that great flights of birds would on the approach of winter be 
driven before the intense cold of Eastern and Central Europe to 
seek refuge and find food in the warm regions of the west, 
regions which then would feel the full effects of the warm 
equatorial currents, and enjoy an almost perpetual summer. 
This movement once begun would, by the very necessities of 
existence, and in time by an hereditary instinct, be continued. 

* There are ninety species of j^lants, all told, common alike to South- 
western England and Ireland, and to the Pyreuean and ItaUan region. 
They represent an old flora no longer adapted to the country, — a flora of 
warmth and sunshine, — and now dying out under the advance of hardier, 
more vigorous and congenial species. They may be regarded as the last 
floral relics of the submerged land, that semitropical western land whose 
plants and flowers are not of Scandinavian origin, but derived from Southern 
Europe. 



EAST COAST OF ENGLAND. 53 

Gradually the land now occupied by the North Sea has been 
withdrawn from beneath the migrating flocks ; year after year 
the middle passage became wider and more difficult ; yet the 
habit once formed would be continued, and hereditary instinct, 
or whatever other name we choose to give it, supply the 
rest. 

Mr. Wallace has told us how, in the Eastern Archipelago, 
comparatively narrow, and probably very ancient, straits of 
water divide and wholly separate distinct races of birds ; and we 
have instances of this in Europe, where species, common on the 
opposite coast of the Continent, rarely or never occur in the 
British Islands. 

Small birds, like the Goldcrest, do not cross great breadths 
of water from choice ; they doubtless would prefer a migration 
over land, from field to field, or hedge to hedge ; or at the most 
closely following some old established coast-line. Why, except 
on some such hypothesis as stated, should they attempt the 
North Sea, not alone at the narrowest part, the straits of Dover, 
or from Ostend to the coast of Kent, but in the very widest 
parts also, from the Elbe to the Humber, or Danish coast to the 
Pentland Firth and Scotch islands ? What impels our autumn 
visitants, the young weeks in advance of their parents, to launch 
westward across what, for anything they can possibly know to 
the contrary, may prove an Atlantic, an ocean without a further 
shore ? 

There are doubtless several causes, working separately or 
together, which influence migration, and we must not look for 
an explanation of the phenomena attending these great periodical 
movements to one cause only, for by doing this we lose sight 
perhaps of other equally powerful incentives. I have spoken in 
previous reports of the probability of birds following ancient 
coast-lines once linking now distant lands, impelled by what we 
call, for want of a better term, hereditary instinct, that is, an 
instinct derived through ancestors. It is, perhaps, an open 
question whether the young, which undoubtedly arrive in the 
autumn weeks in advance of the great mass of old birds, depend 
entirely on this, or whether they are in any way dependent on 
guidance and direction. It is a curious fact, which we have 
frequently remarked, that the very earliest of their kind are 
frequently a few old birds, — flocks of young, too, often contain a 



54 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

sprinkling of old female birds, — such as may be supposed have 
made the journey before ; but it must be also borne in mind 
that on dark or even starlight nights, when these movements 
mostly take place, any guidance, even that of call-note, would be 
futile at any but a very limited range. 



( 55 ) 



WEST COAST OF SCOTLAND. 

Schedules, &c., were sent to forty stations, the same number 
as in previous years. We have received filled-in schedules 
from thirteen stations.* 

Generally the returns are light, lighter than last year. 

We have notes upon thirty-two species of land birds from 
this coast, and about fourteen species of water-birds, whilst 
the species of Waders or Littoral species may be placed at 
eight. 

The Spring Migration I have kept distinct in this report. 
Weather notes included in General Kemarks. 

Here follows the usual list of stations, with asterisks which 
point out the annual returns from the beginning of the scheme, 
from each station. 

West Coast of Scotland. 

Mainland. 

1879, '80, '81, '82. 
^- * * 81. Cape Wrath, Sutherland 400 ft. 

* * - 82. Ehu Stoir, W.Cromarty... 195 „ 

Outer Hebrides. 

* * * - 83. Butt of Lewis 170 „ Alex. Thompson 

* * 84. Stornoway 56 ,, 

* * * 85. Island Glass 130,, 

" '^' * " 86. Monach Island | ^o " [ J- Youngclause. 

* * 87. Ushenish 176 „ 

88. BarraHead 683,, 

Mainland, Skye, and Inner Hebrides. 

89. Bona, Sye 222 „ 

* * ^ 90. Kyleakin, Bosshire 53 „ D. McCulloch. 

* But tlie Isle of Man stations — five in number — have been taken over 
by Mr. P. Kermode, as be is on the spot, and as they really lie naore into 
his district, 



56 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

1879, '80, '81, '82. 

* * 91. Isle Ornsay, Skye 58 ft. 

=:-« * 92. Ardnamurchan, Pt. Argyle 180 ,, 

^ ^ ^ (93. Hynish Signal Tower,Tyree|-Q Alx McEaoliPm 
(94. Skerryvore, off Tyree |1&U„ Alx.McJLacliern. 

* =;> * * 95. Dhuheartach, S. of Eoss 

of Mull 145 ,, John Ewing. 

* * =:-- =!= 96. Sound of Mull 55 „ W. McLellan. 

97. Corran Ferry, Loch Eil ... 38 „ 

* * '^^ 98. Lismore Island, Oban 103,, A.Murray. 

* =:= 99. Fladda, Easdale 42,, 

=;= =:= * 100. Rliuvaal, Islay 147,, 

* =i^ * 101. Mac Arthur's Head 128 ,, W. Maill. 

=:= =:= * - 102. Skervuile, Jura 73,, John Ewing. 

* =:^ ^o =:= 103. Rhinns of Islay 159,, Andrew Lyall. 

* * 104. Lochindaul 50 ,, 

105. Mull of Kintyre 297 „ 

106. Sanda, Kintyre Sound ... 165 ,, 

107. Devaar, Kintyre 120,, 

108. Pladda, Annan 130,, 

* 109. Lamlash, Arran 46 ,, 

* ^= 110. Turnberry, Ayrshire 96 ,, 

* ^:< ^1^. 111. Corsewall, Wigtown 112 ,, 

* * -:= -'' 112. Loch Ryan, Wigtown 46 ,, Ralph Ewing. 

'fi * ■•' * 113. Portpatrick, Wigtown 37 ,, Jas. Beggs, 

* * * =;-• 114. Mull of Galloway, Wigtown 325 ,, H. Morrison. 

* 115. Little Ross, Kirkcudbright 175 „ 



116. Pomtof Ayr , 

117. Douglas Head 

118. Chickens Rock 

119.-1880. Bahama Rock l.v. 
120. Longness L.v 



y Isle of Man. 



The last five stations are now placed at the head of the W. 
of England stations under Mr. P. Kermode. We are sorry to 
find a falling off in the returns this year and would have liked 
to know if any reason can be assigned for the same. 

We have to thank Mr. McCulloch, at Kyleakin, for the careful 
records of directions of flight of the species observed. These 
are important, and a great assistance at arriving at conclusions. 

At Skervuile, owing to an accident to his hand, no notes were 
kept by Mr. Ewing for some time between July and September, 
but fewer birds were seen than for many years back. 



WEST COAST OF SCOTLAND. 57 

TuRDiD^. — In autumn, at Monach, Kyleakin, Skerry vore, 
Dhuheartach, Ehinns of Islay, Corsewall, Loch Eyan, Mull of Gallo- 
way. No records at any stations till Oct. 11th, when three Field- 
fares were killed at Monach. An indication of a rush was apparent 
all through October after that date of Turdidcs and other species, 
more especially at Ehinns of Islay. Latest records on Nov. 22nd, 
prior to which date many Blackbirds and Thrushes frequented 
Corsewall for a week during a covering of snow ; therefore 
probably only a local movement. At Kyleakin Song Thrushes 
and Blackbirds resided all winter up to January, 1883. In 
October no great rush observable, but indications of the same 
migration observable on the E. coast were noticed at Corsewall 
on the 14th, and at Dhuheartach and Ehinns of Islay on 17th ; 
and a few Blackbirds and Thrushes showed at Skerryvore on 
13th. Eight Song Thrushes were killed one night also at 
MacArthur's Head, and a single male Blackbird was seen in the 
garden at Monach on Nov. 1st. A rush of " small birds " took 
place during October, but in no large masses, at MacArthur's 
Head and Ehinns of Islay, and at Corsewall and southward. 
Three species of Turdidce noticed. 

Saxicolin^. — Spring records, as usual, are scanty ; some five 
records at five stations, viz., Butt of Lewis, Skerryvore, Ehuvaal, 
MacArthur's Head and Mull of Galloway. Earliest, March 9th 
at Butt of Lewis ; latest, on May 17th at MacArthur's Head, 
mostly of single Wheatears. In autumn, a few records of 
Wheatears from Skerryvore, Dhuheartach, Ehuvaal, and Ehinns 
of Islay : the earliest, Aug. 17th at Dhuheartach ; latest, Oct. 
16th ; and an evident rush on Aug. 23rd at Ehinns of Islay, and 
again on Sept. 10th at Skerryvore, where over 100 were seen on 
the rocks. 

SiLviiN^. — Of Eobins one spring record at Skerryvore on 
April 9th, a single bird resting; fair S.S.E. and haze. In 
autumn, at Kyleakin, Skerryvore, Lismore, Skervuile and Little 
Eoss. Earliest, a single bird on Aug. 17th, at Skervuile ; latest, 
two at Kyleakin (where, however, Eobins arrived on Nov. 15th, and 
remained all winter up to close of schedule on Jan. 27th, 1883). 
An evident rush took place at Butt of Lewis between Sept. 14th 
and 30th, with Wrens on the 26th, and with Wagtails on the 
28th, 29th, and 30th ; in November, a few Eobins, accompanied 
by Wrens and Linnets, at Lismore on 11th ; and in October one 

I 



58 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

Robin and one Wheatear, together, on 9th at Skerryvore. All 
the records in August, September, and October accompanied by 
easterly winds, the rush in September with N.E. 

Phylloscopin^. — Of Golden-crested Wrens one spring record 
at Mull of Galloway, on March 8th and 9th, when " great 
numbers " were round the lantern at midnight ; wind S.W., light, 
clear. In autumn, earliest, Sept. 21st, at Corsewall, and 22nd and 
25th at Loch Ryan ; latest, and rush at Corsewall and Mull of 
Galloway, on 15th and 16th, when "great numbers" round 
lantern ; strong E. and haze ; straggling birds also, 8th and 9th, 
at same places. A significant record is on Oct. 10th, at Rhinns 
of Islay, north of which station we have no records. On that 
date eight Golden-crested Wrens struck and one was killed ; 
wind light S.E., haze. The similarity of dates of occurrence at 
Mull of Galloway on W. coast and Isle of May on E. coast this 
year worthy of notice (see General Remarks). 

Parid^. — Of Titmice only two spring records, both at Mull of 
Galloway ; five killed at midnight, March 18th, and great numbers 
flying round lantern on May 22nd ; wind light E. Note approxi- 
mation of dates on W. and E. coasts (see General Remarks.) 

Troglodytin^. — Of Wrens one spring record at Skerryvore ; 
two flying about rock on May 24th ; wind light N.W., clear. In 
autumn one on Sept. 22nd, at Lismore. Latest, Nov. 11th, a few 
at Lismore, and a partial rush on Oct. 8th, 9th and 11th, at 
Corsewall, and on Oct. 11th and 26th at Lismore, the two latter 
accompanied by Starlings and Robins. 

MoTACiLLiDiE. — In autumu three Wagtails at Skerryvore, on 
Aug. 28th, two — male and female — in a garden at Kyleakin, 
and a few on each day at Lismore, on Oct. 28th, 29th, and 30th, 
with light N.E. winds. Of Pipits, four struck and two were 
killed at Butt of Lewis, in strong W. breeze, on March 17th ; 
they were accompanied by Tree Sparrows. In autumn, hundreds 
round the Little Ross on Sept. 6th, after 8 p.m., for two hours ; 
one killed at 12 noon, in light N. breeze, clear, at Dhuheartach, 
on Oct. 28th. It is not often they are recorded as killed in the 
daytime in clear weather. Land Notes. — An unusual number 
of Pied Wagtails — fifty or more in one flock — on Sept. 25th, in 
Kirkcudbright (J. J. Armistead, Esq.) ; also two Motacilla flava 
seen on Sept. 11th, — a very rare occurrence at Douglas Hall. 

Hirundinid/t:. — Swallows : Spring records at Kyleakin, 



WEST COAST OF SCOTLAND. 59 

Skerry vore, Dhuheartach, Lismore, Corse wall, and Loch Kyan. 
Seen first on April 12th at Corsewall, and April 15th at Loch 
Eyan, where fifteen Swallows arrived with light N. wind and 
sleet. Latest records on June 15th at Lismore, and 9th at 
Skerryvore; not seen at Dhuheartach till May 14th. Other 
records at Lismore on 10th, a flock, and 13th, another flock. 
In autumn, one Swallow rested on window of lighthouse at 
Dhuheartach, on Aug. 11th, and a final movement was observed 
in September about the 14th and 15th, at Loch Kyan and 
Mull of Galloway, besides a few other records at earlier dates. 
Land Notes. — Swallow first seen at Douglas Hall, Dumfriesshire 
on 7th. Mr. Howard Saunders, residing at St. Jean de Luz, in 
the Basses Pyrenees, saw the first Swallow on March 25th, along 
with many Wheatears and Kedstarts. Woodcocks had passed 
but in small numbers, and only two were seen in the market. 

Feingillid^. — Tree Sparrows seen at Butt of Lewis on Feb. 
20th, when four struck and two were killed ; strong E. wind and 
haze. Again six were seen at same place and two killed on 
March 20th ; and again six at the same place and one killed, on 
April 8th. House Sparrows are recorded on May 27th, at 
Skerryvore, flying about ; and at MacArthur's Head — a number 
all day — on May 8th. House Sparrows were also seen at Butt 
of Lewis on Feb. 25th, with strong S.W. breeze, haze, and rain. 
In autumn, House Sparrows, a large flock at Lismore on Oct. 
24th; "Finches" on Oct. 10th, at Sound of Mull; Linnets, a 
rush about 7th and 11th at Lismore, with a few earlier records ; 
and on Dec. 29th, at Monach, where all left on the 20th. Some 
of these records probably apply to Grey Linnets, and the Monach 
one likely to Twites or " Mountain Linnets." Four, possibly five, 
species. Land Notes. — Four Siskins seen on sandhills on Solway 
Firth, on a patch of thistles ; gone next morning, Oct. 17th 
(J. J. Armistead.) Mr. Scot Skriving, of Edinburgh, mentions, 
in lit., that the Chaffinch, was the most common of small birds 
in Islay prior to the terrible winter of 1878, but after that very rare 
indeed, until on Oct 22nd, 1880, a flock of some thousands ap- 
peared, and since then they have again been fairly abundant. 

Emberizid^. — Two Snow Buntings were seen at Butt of 
Lewis on March 21st. Autumn records : Snow Bunting Oct. 
15th at Kyleakin, to Dec. 12th at Butt of Lewis. No rush apparent 
and records scanty ; three or four in all in October and November. 



60 REPORT ON TKE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

One Yellow Bunting on Oct. 15th, at Kyleakin. Two or three 
records at Dhuheartach also in October, November and December. 
Alaudid.e. — In end of migration of 1881-82, under date 
Jan. 12th, 16th, 1882, and 18th, large parties of Larks are recorded 
at Lismore ; wind light S. No more records till autumn, 1882. 
On Sept. 27th, at Corsewall, one on lantern. Latest date, 
Dec. 27th, at Skerryvore, two found dead; light S.S.W. and 
clear. Eecords of direction of flight usually S.E., but these 
records are, as are too often the case, too meagre to assist us. 
Direction of flight is earnestly asked for. A rush distinguishable 
at Rhinns of Islay on Oct. 8th and 12th. Two Larks remained 
all night on lantern at Dhuheartach, on Jan. 2nd, 1883. 

Sturnid.e. — Starling : in spring a large flock on March 
11th at Butt of Lewis, but they are resident here, and rarely 
come to the light ; two were killed here, however, on June 7th. 
A record at Mac Arthur's Head ; great scarcity of records of 
Starlings. A few autumn records only; numbers feeding for 
days at Rhinns of Islay, end of August. A rush apparently took 
place at Mac Arthur's Head, along with many '' small birds," 
between first week of October and 31st. Records scattered through 
November, December, and January (1883). 

CoRviD^. — ''Black Crows" (probably Rooks?) which are 
seldom seen at Skerryvore, showed in March, when three were 
seen one day, and one rested on May 29th, and a " Grey Crow " 
on 16th. In autumn, " Black Crows," a large flock during 
snow, seen flying E. at Portpatrick on Dec. 14th. One Hooded 
Crow on 26th at Monach, flying S.W. One Raven at Kyleakin 
on 5th, flying S., light N.E. wind ; and one Magpie ('* very rare " 
at Kyleakin) on Jan. 7th, 1883, flying S.E. One Jackdaw rested 
on the rock on Feb. 11th (1883), and on the 19th two "Black 
Crows " were seen flying in an easterly direction ; wind S.W., 
fresh and clear. 

CucuLiDiE. — Records of arrivals of Cuckoos in spring are as 
follows : — 

Mull of Galloway April 30th. Variable, light airs. 

Loch Ryan May 5th. Strong N.W. 

Corsewall ,, 5th. Strong N.W. 

Skervuile ,, 19th. Light E., clear. 

MacArthur's Head ,, loth. Light E. airs. 

Lismore ,, 15th. Light E. airs. 

Kyleakin „ 3rd. ? ? 



WEST COAST OF SCOTLAND. 61 

Land Notes, — 
Kinharvie, near Dumfries, May 3rd {auct J. J. Armistead, Esq.). 

Douglas Hall May 4th ,, ,, 

If a series of records could be obtained like the above from the 
E. coast stations, a comparison might be useful. 

Stkigid^. — One record of Owl only. One ** Owl " at Mull 
of Galloway; strong E. breeze. 

Falconid^ — No actual migration of Hawks discernible from 
the records. Visit Dhuheartach daily through the season, and 
seen at other stations occasionally. One Falcon at Kyleakin 
seen flying S. ; light E., rain and sleet. Land Notes. — On Sept. 
27th a Buzzard seen at Douglas Hall (probably a migrant) ; and 
on Nov. 1st a pair of Buzzards seen (J. J. Armistead, Esq.) 

PelecanidtE. — Movements of Gannets are noted at Lismore; 
two seen on May 24th, and at Mull of Galloway on 21st — large 
flock flying west, light E. breeze ; and on 22nd about eighty 
also flying W., with strong S. wind, clear. In July, great flights 
flying S. all day at Loch Eyan, on the 8th, and two seen at 
Skervuile. Great flights in August at Loch Eyan, flying N., 
wind N.N.W., strong; Sept. 29th and 30th, at Skervuile, flying 
S. At Butt of Lewis, daily, from March 15th till Sept. 15th. 
** Daily, all the year round," at Kyleakin. Solan Geese had all 
disappeared from the vicinity of Dhuheartach by Nov. 14th, and 
they reappeared there again on Jan. 25th (1883), and other 
records are up to Feb. 6th (1883.) 

Aedeid^. — Only one record given at Portpatrick, Nov. 6th, 
N.W. gale, flying N. ; but there can be no doubt of the greater 
frequency of their visits all through the season. 

Anatid^. — Wild Geese at Butt of Lewis, April 24th, when 
forty seen flying S.W., and on 29th fourteen seen flying S.E.; 
wind on both days fresh S. and rain. In August, at Monach, 
two flying N.W., strong N. wind ; on 30th and on 27th, two 
flying S., at Ehinns of Islay, light E. In October, various flocks 
of sixteen, eighteen, twenty-four, &c., with general E. winds, 
coming and going in different directions at Monach, mostly 
flying N.W., and at Kyleakin, but flying S.W. on Oct. 12th. 
Also in November, between 3rd and 6th, at Ehinns of Islay and 
Loch Eyan, small parties flying S., with different winds A few 
records in December also, at Monach. Eecords of Eider Ducks 
on Sept. 22nd and 27th, at Dhuheartach, males and females in 



62 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

equal proportions ; eighteen and twenty-four Eiders at Dbu- 
heartach on Dec. 3rd and 10th, males and females. A few 
" Pintail Ducks " (?) at Monach on Nov. 13th, and one female 
shot. Swan : four at Corsewall, flying N.E., on Sept 27th, fresh 
S.E. Land Notes. — Black Scoters abundantly. Velvet Scoters 
sparingly, but Scaup Ducks rarely seen on Solway Firth during 
June and July. Common Scoter abundant in August ; several 
Velvet Scoters seen. Sept. 23rd, about fifty Wild Geese, finally 
flew away over sea to S.S.E.; Oct. 1st, five Geese flew over 
Douglas Hall ; 2nd, more seen ; twenty-four Geese seen on Oct, 
14th (J. J. Armistead). 

Rallid^. — Corncrake at Rhinns of Islay, first seen on May 
19th ; at Dhuheartach one seen on the rock on May 8th (never 
seen before here by Mr. Ewing) ; and at Kyleakin one heard on 
May 31st. Directions of wind not given. 

Charadriad^. — At Rhuvaal, three to four dozen young and 
old Golden Plovers on Oct. 6th, and a few seen at Monach on 
Nov. 13th, and a good many scattered over the islands at Monach 
on Dec. 14th. Lapwings are also mentioned once or twice. 

ScoLOPACiDJE, Woodcock. — The rush barely indicated at 
Monach (odd bird) Oct. 11th ; Lismore (two killed), Oct. 8th ; and 
one bii'd at Sound of Mull, Nov. 5th. Snipe also very slight move- 
ment, principally at Rhinns of Islay. Of Curlew, many records 
from Aug. 12th to Dec. 16th. Rush appears, if any took place, 
to have been in September. Whimbrels are reported " very 
scarce," only two records on July 21st, and on Aug. 15th, at 
Skerryvore. There are also a few spring records of Curlews, 
from February to June. Land Notes. — Aug. 8th, saw two 
Greenshanks on Solway (J. J. Armistead, Esq.) It appears 
possible that this bird breeds not far from the Solway, from 
other information I have gained. — J. A. H. B. Four Turnstones 
seen Aug. 31st, Solway {auct. cit.) ; also two hundred Bar-tailed 
Godwits and thirty or forty Golden Plovers. No Knots yet. 

Larid^e. Terns arrived at Rhinns of Islay on May 16th ; at 
Dhuheartach on May 12th; on Monach- Islands, May 15th. 
They were last seen at Skervuile on Sept. 6th. They leave Butt 
of Lewis about Aug. 12th. They passed Lismore at night, 
striking lantern, on Aug. 13th, and on 14th more, accompanied 
by Larks. Of Gulls, "Boatswain Birds" were seen on June 
21st, at MacAi'thur's Head, and there are records of them at 



WEST COAST OF SCOTLAND. 63 

Skervuile, along with Kittiwakes and Black-headed Gulls, from 
May 1st to 9th. Two " Dirty Allans " amongst a large flock 
of Gulls, at Butt of Lewis on July 10th ; Iceland Gull, flying 
south, on Oct. 11th at Kyleakin ; and great numbers of Kittiwakes 
at Skervuile, on Oct. 3nd and 22nd. Land Notes. — Common 
Terns at nesting haunts in Kirkcudbrightshire, but no eggs laid 
by May 17th (auct. J. J. Armistead, Esq.) By Aug. 12th Terns 
had left their nesting-ground {auct. cit.) 

CoLYMBiD^. — Great Northern Diver seen at Kyleakin, near the 
lighthouse, on May 10th, light E. wind ; again on June 19th, 
light W. wind. In autumn, at Monach, four seen, light S.E. 
wind, rain, and fog ; two flying S. at Corsewall on Nov. 21st, and 
two, resting, on 22nd ; two flying ''towards N. Uist " {i.e. N.E.), 
at Monach, on Dec. loth, and one flying east at Corsewall on 
Dec. 16th. 

General Kemarks. 

A vast migration took place this year upon our E. coast, the 
heaviest waves breaking upon the entrance to the Firth of Forth, 
at the Isle of May station, and again at Pentland Skerries. Bell 
Eock came in also for a share, though apparently, from the 
schedules, a much smaller one than at the Isle of May. The 
easterly winds prevailed all along our E. coast, generally strong 
to gales, and the successions of south-easterly and easterly 
gales in October, between the 8th and 23rd, occurring as they 
did, just at the usual time of the principal migration, brought 
vast numbers of land-birds to our shores. From Faroe in the 
north to the extreme south of England this is found to have 
been the case, but the usual blank on our Scottish coast occurs, 
over a large extent of shore-line, from Dunnet Head, in Caith- 
ness, all the way to Bell Eock. From all this great stretch 
of coast, embracing no less than ten lighthouse stations, I 
have only two schedules returned. These two schedules res- 
pectively are from Cromarty, a closely landlocked station, and 
the other from Chanonry, a still more completely landlocked 
station, — both absolutely sheltered, as it were, from the track 
of the great S.E. and easterly gales ; I may therefore say that I 
have not a single statistic of direct value, between Dunnet Head 
and Bell Eock, as regards the general migration. My thanks 



64 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

are none the less due, however, to Mr. Ritson, of Cronicarty, and 
to Mr. McGill, of Chanonry, as then* notes will, without doubt, 
prove of value if continued, and will assist us in arriving 
at conclusions regarding more local movements of birds, de- 
pendent uj)on food and shelter, which may prove none the less 
interesting because of their connection with landlocked positions. 
The absence of returns from this great stretch of coast-line is 
much to be deplored, and at present I am perfectly unable to 
state whether it is due entirely to absence of birds at all these 
stations every season, which, however, I can hardly think is the 
case, or if it is lack of interest at some of these stations. If the 
latter, we can only say we regret that we have failed to arouse 
sufficient interest in our subject. I cannot pass over this with- 
out the one further remark, that if the lighthouse-keepers at 
these stations would only return the schedules, with even a 
negative statement, every yeai\ it would facilitate our work. The 
absolute knowledge^ that year after year no birds are seen at these 
stations^ ivould be as valuable to us as positive data. By a chance 
visit to Buchan Ness — one of these stations — on the Aberdeen- 
shire coast, I learned that a Manx Shearwater was once captured 
at the lights, and saw the specimen, and thus it was added to the 
Aberdeenshire fauna, besides being an extremely rare visitant to 
any portion of the E. coast. Had this been returned in a 
schedule, I would have been doubly grateful for dates and circum- 
stances of the occurrence at the time. While I am on the 
subject of addressing our reporters let me once more earnestly 
request them, in every case ivhere "possible, to state the directions in 
which migratory flocks of birds are seen flying. This ivould greatly 
facilitate our deductions from year to year ; and especially ivould I 
ask attention to this at all the more northerly stations, and all the 
west coast stations. 

Perhaps not the least remarkable migration was that of 
Regidus cristatus (the Golden-crested Wren), extending in one 
broad wave from Faroe southward along the whole coast, coming 
with S. to S.E. to E. winds, reaching the Scottish stations by 
Aug. 27th, and continuing to November 12th, but apparently not 
reaching Faroe till Oct. 21st, when a great rush took place. It 
is worthy of remark also that they were unusually abundant at 
Isle of May in spring, a rush taking place in March, and 
of females on March 10th. The stream in autumn, on the 



WEST COAST OF SCOTLAND. 65 

Scotch coasts, lasted from 8th to 23rd, but did not begin in 
Faroe till 20th or 21st. A vast general rush of many other 
species reached our coasts also between Oct. 8th and 23rd. The 
great waves of Turdidcs scarcely seem to have reached Faroe, as 
we have only a few records of them thence in December, and the 
same remark may be held to apply to many other species 
mentioned. 

It is also important to note, that while so abundant at the 
outlying station of Isle of May and Bell Kock on the E. coast, 
there should have been an almost complete absence of any 
of these species at the next station, a little higher up the Firth 
of Forth, viz., at Inchkeith ; and to record that it appears to be 
always with westerly winds that birds occur there. While there 
were hundreds of records at Isle of May, there were none with 
the same winds at Inchkeith, and only about ten records in all. 
Its somewhat landlocked position accounts for this, and its being 
sheltered from the S.E. winds places it on a similar footing with 
Chanonry and Cromarty, in the Moray Firth. Weather. — Upon 
our E. coasts, easterly and south-easterly winds prevailed 
throughout the greater part of the migratory seasons, both in 
spring and autumn, and reached forces of from fresh to gales. 
On the W. coast the wind was for the most part weterly and north 
westerly, rarely S. during spring, at the greater part of the 
stations, and was easterly and south-easterly in autumn, seldom 
reaching fresh or strong, or gales, as on the E. coast, usually 
light, or from light E. or S.E. to variable. The above facts will 
be considered, whilst we state next the distribution of the 
migratory waves on the W. coast, in relation to those on the E. 
coast. As in 1881, records on the W. coast begin to bulk more 
largely towards the southern stations. All north of Khinns 
of Islay and MacArthur's Head the records of land-birds are 
very scanty, and the lighthouse keepers remark upon the scarcity. 
At usually (normally) crowded stations, such as Skervuile, they 
are reported as yielding " fewer birds than for many years back." 
Even at Ehinns of Islay the records are not large, but they 
begin to show an increase at this point. Unfortunately I have 
no autumn returns between Ehinns of Islay and Corsewall, which 
latter is south of the Firth of Clyde. 

Now, if anything additional to the general bulk of the records 
is required to show the line of migration of 1882, it is the 

K 



66 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

significant record of the Golden-crested Wren at Ehinns of 
Islay on Oct. 10th, and at Corsewall and stations to the south, 
but nowhere to the north of the former station. Now, it seems 
that the strong easterly to S.E. gales on our E. coast, which 
brought over such streams (rather than rushes) of birds, — such 
countless thousands, — did not carry them forward across the 
breadth of Scotland to any appreciable extent, but that the birds, 
tired and storm-tossed, rapidly sought rest and shelter on arrival ; 
and that we have only on the W. coast indications that such a 
great stream broke upon the E. coast. These indications, how- 
ever, are strong enough to enable us to mark out, with some 
degree of certainty, the lines and turning-points of the stream. 

If we do this, by comparing the records of the various 
schedules, we find that, south of the Firth of Clyde, the records 
bulk most largely ; and we also find that the dates agree with 
those of the E. coast. 

MacArthur's Head and Ehinns of Islay appear to me, from 
the bulking of records, similarity of dates, continuance of light 
E. winds, and. species occurring, to represent the turning-point 
of the autumn migration from E. to W. Ehinns of Islay is a 
salient angle, catching glimpses of passing birds from N.W. to 
S.E. Otherwise, if the strong gales did not cause all birds to 
drop for shelter on Scotland, it must have carried many far out 
over the Atlantic, as in 1880. Isle of May sends in 19 schedules, 
and Pentland Skerries 8. Bell Eock sends 2 — thickly filled — 
and North Eonaldshay 3, but bulking less than Bell Eock. What 
has become of the many birds passing through the Pentland 
Firth ? We find little indication of them at the nine northerly 
W. coast stations. Have many overshot the land and passed out 
over the Atlantic ? 

Another point worth noting, is the occurrence of many birds 
in spring at the same stations frequented by the species in 
autumn. Thus, at Mull of Galloway on March 8th and 9th, 
with westerly winds. Gold-crests were abundant, and at the same 
station on Oct. 15th and 16th, an autumn-rush took place, with 
easterly and N.E. wind and haze. The same double records 
occur at Bell Eock and Isle of May as regards many species, and 
especially Tiirdidce and Regidus cristatus. This " returning " 
upon old lines has already been remarked upon by my colleague, 
Mr. J. Cordeaux, in our Third Eeport (p. 38). Since these last 



WEST COAST OF SCOTLAND. 67 

sentences were written, I have received the first of the 1883 
schedules from the Isle of May, and may here state what the 
effects of the succession of N.E. gales in March have been on ine 
spring migration, leaving however the details of Mr. Agnew's 
schedules to be worked into our next — 1883 — Eeport. I give 
this in Mr. Agnew's own words, as I entirely coincide with the 
opinions expressed. Mr. Agnew writes on the back of the 
schedule as follows : — " With reference to your note on the 
schedules sent, as to the effect of the N.E. gale of March 6th, 
7th, and 8th, 1883, you will see from the entries inside that the 
effect of that gale was almost to stop migration at the Isle 
of May. Migration that had set in pretty briskly on the 2nd 
almost ceased on the 5th, and from that date we had only a few 
stragglers of the strongest wings, up to the 19th. I believe the 
effect of that gale was to drive the birds that should have come 
this way, away to the southward. Had the gale been from the 
S.E. it would have been different here." 

In fact, a N.E. wind reaching such strengths as those 
of March 1883 did, acts very much in the same way upon spring 
migrants, pressing them more to the southward, as north-westerly 
strong winds and gales act upon the autumn migrants, whose 
normal course is from E. to W., or S. of E. to N. of W. It will 
be interesting to trace this further from the schedules returned 
from other stations, when they come in for 1883. Another point 
to note in spring migration of 1883, will be the greater westering 
of the return migrants, if we may use the expression, partly 
consequent upon the greater westering of the autumn migrants, 
caused by the long-continued and strong south-easterly winds 
of the preceding autumn, and partly upon the north-easterly winds 
of March pressing them down and deflecting their course to more 
inland and sheltered lines. 

In this connection I would speak here of the great assembly 
of the Pied Wagtails on the narrow stone horizontal moulding 
above the upper windows of the General Post Office, Edinburgh, 
where, upon March 17th, 1883, A. B. H., who recorded the facts 
in the * Scotsman ' of that date, counted more than sixty ; and 
he adds, in a subsequent letter to to me, "there was at least one 
in every niche of the carved capitols of the columns. I think I 
am quite within the mark when I say there were 150 birds 
altogether." This flock roosted there on March 17th and 18th, 



68 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

but disappeared on the 19th, owmg, Mr. H. thinks, to a rise of 
temperature and the wind going round from N.E. to S.E. Mr. H. 
was informed that numbers, probably the same birds, were seen 
feeding at Duddingstone Loch on the 18th. Now, several years 
ago, a similar assemblage was noted at the same locality, by a 
well-known Edinburgh ornithologist, but it occurred, not in spring 
but in autumn, and a general movement was at that time also 
noted by Mr. H., and recorded in the Proc. Eyl. Phyl. Soc. of 
Edinburgh, on Jan. 15th, 1879, from which last noted records 
of autumnal migration it would appear that he saw about seventy 
Pied Wagtails on the roof a house in Edinburgh, in the middle 
of September, 1878, and Mr. Scot Skirviug, of Edinburgh, on a 
previous occasion, saw some 300 at the General Post Office, but 
the exact date of this latter record has unfortunately been lost or 
mislaid, as we are unable, of course, to find out definitely the 
meteorological phenomena accompanying the record. 

Further, my friend Mrc Eagle Clarke, notes the arrival of the 
same species in the neighbourhood of the Ure Biver, near 
Masham, Yorkshire, as early as Feb. 5th, 1883. Though resi- 
dent in the lowlands about Leeds, it is migratory to and from 
the higher lands. Mr. Eagle Clarke has often seen as many as 
200 in a flock, on a large lawn near Leeds. 

Mr. Agnew informs me, that with a S. wind there is little 
migration past the Isle of May, and that S.E. is the best wind in 
spring to permit of observations being made. Five Wagtails 
were seen at Isle of May on the 29th and 30th, however, during a 
gale from the S. 

The Spring Migration of 1883 seems to me to indicate the 
direct effects of the N.E. gale, causing these Wagtails to keep 
inland by a more sheltered route, which Wagtails in ordinary 
weather would probably have passed up the coast-line and 
crossed the entrance of the Firth of Forth, showing themselves 
at Isle of May and Bell Rock stations. Mr. Eobert Gray has, 
I believe, frequently observed the spring arrivals of this species 
on the west coast — in Ayrshire ; and it will be interesting to see 
if we can trace the movement up the west coast, on the returning 
lineSf when schedules are returned for 1883, from Mull of 
Galloway and other west coast stations. 

I have dwelt upon these fatts because I believe that our 
appreciation of the general lines and of the laws regulating the 



WEST COAST OF SCOTLAND. 69 

great annual migrations can be very greatly assisted by the study 
of individual species on their migration, and good opportunities 
are in this report afforded us of doing so by the records of several 
species. One more remark : — It seems also worthy of note that 
very possibly these Wagtails were finding their way across 
Scotland from the Solway or the Clyde, and, resting on the 
General Post Office buildings, repaired south for daily food — as 
I have noticed birds do during the spring migration on the 
Petchora, at Ust Zylma, and Habarika, in N. E. Kussia; and on 
the advent of a more favourable temperature and change of wind, 
pursued their course northward. If these are correctly recorded 
as Pied Wagtails, — as there is no reason to suppose is not so, — 
then their destination would be the North of Scotland ; but if 
they were the White Wagtail or continental form, then, as far as 
general records of migration guide us, they would probably shoot 
off again at Isle of May or Bell Rock — towards the Continent. 
Mr. Agnew's note of ''very white Wagtails" at Isle of May 
should be borne in mind in this connection {antea, p. 12). 

That a line of migration does occur across Scotland both in 
spring and autumn between Forth and Clyde, I think, needs 
little demonstration beyond what we have already stated in 
previous reports ; both from data and by referring to General 
Remarks this seems perfectly obvious. The evidences of the sea 
having at one time advanced inland a long distance past the very 
spot in which I now live can scarcely be gainsaid ; and Forth 
and Clyde — by two separate branches — must at one time have 
approached one another very much more closely than they now 
do, and a comparatively narrow isthmus have been formed by at 
least one of these two branches. As already remarked, it is 
curious to find rare American and rare eastern species occurring 
so frequently at localities on that line ; witness as the latest 
record of importance that of the Pectoral Sandpiper, Tringa 
maculatay Vieillot, at Loch Lomond, after continuous and scarcely 
failing easterly winds, on Nov. 24th, 1882. 

Sir Geo. Leith Buchanan informs me that he believes that 
the wind was north-west at the time he shot the Pectoral Sand- 
piper, but this was local, as prevailing winds were easterly at 
that time. Sir George also tells me of the other birds of rare 
occurrence which he has met with at the same locality, but no 
notes at the time were taken of wind. These are as follows ; — 



70 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

** Biionapartian Gull, in April 1851 or 1852. Black-tailed God- 
wit, April, about same date. Shoveller found breeding, and two 
since shot by keeper. Two Wood Sandpipers, one in August and 
the other on Oct. 4th. One Little Stint in October, seen in 
company with two others. The Spotted Crake must breed, as 
every autumn I meet with them when Snipe-shooting. The 
Shrike I obtained once in December, 1866, and I saw another 
two or three winters since." I think if we thus endeavour to 
group together rare occurrences, and collect lists from various 
localities, we cannot fail to arrive at some conclusions regarding 
the highways of migration. We are thus working from data up 
to facts, without an undue amount of theorising. 

It is well known to naturalists that Swallows cross the Alps 
by certain passes, as is also done by other species, regularly 
year after year. People have often marvelled at the punctuality 
of appearance of the Swallow and other species at certain 
favourite resorts. There is nothing marvellous in it. When 
the great general movement takes place, and the flights of birds 
pass over old frequented and well-known spots, these are 
recognised and jDromptly occupied by the hereditary occupants, 
or, if found unoccupied by later migrants, they are then filled up. 
This remark applies both in spring and autumn. In a former 
Eeport I have instanced the arrivals of Wood Pigeons on the 
Fife coast, and I have also instanced breeding-sites of birds 
occupied for many years, unoccupied for two or more years, 
and then reoccupied again. I am informed by Mr. A. B. Herbert 
that some of the favourite alpine passes for the annual mi- 
gration of birds are the Albula and Bermina Passes into the 
Adda Valley and Lake Como, returning the same way in 
spring. If this regularity occurs during the passage of the 
bulk of migratory birds, I think there are good reasons for 
believing that a similar regularity appears in the distribution 
along certain lines of rare visitants, even if travelled all the 
way from America or the Asiatic steppes and tundras. No 
doubt they get into the groove — so to speak — and carry on in 
company with the main flocks of other species, joining issue with 
them along the great highways of migration, which I think have 
been well pointed out in many cases by Palmen and Herr 
Weissmann. Though the article by the latter has been 
abundantly criticised and even pooh-poohed, I venture to record 



WEST COAST OP SCOTLAND. 71 

my firm belief that there is more in it than appeared on the 
surface, and that the more we know of migration the more fully 
will his theory be borne out. 

It is known to naturalists that some species which are known 
to breed in the highest northern latitudes travel on migration to 
the furthest southern localities. Let us instance the Knot 
(Tringa canuta). Temperature has to do with this directly. 
What a vast breeding-ground of this species, as yet undiscovered, 
must there be somewhere in the far north if we witness the great 
streams on their annual migration along our coasts. In spring 
they travel on and on towards the north until they find a 
temperature cool enough for the successful hatching and rearing 
of their young, reaching their far off summer quarters even before 
insect-life has begun to show itself, after the long Arctic winter ; 
and, with the strength and vigour of a far northern-bred species, 
they adapt themselves to the only food existing — the fronds of 
lichen laid bare by the first melting of the snow. The hardiness 
of the race, bred thus on the shores of the Arctic seas, induces 
the vigour and "fitness" which enables them to travel so far 
again to the southward in autumn and winter ; and it is the 
annual overflow of their vast numbers, pressing behind those in 
the van, which — as it were — adds impulse to the ability, and 
carries them forward. They press forward in autumn to fresh 
feeding-grounds as those behind are taken up by others suc- 
ceeding them. 



The Report for the West Coast of England, although 
frequently applied for by the Secretary, has up to this date not 
been received. 

August 26th, 1883. 



( 73 ) 



IRISH COAST. 

In the spring of 1882 forty schedules were forwarded to the 
light-keepers, and in the autumn forty-one. Thirty-one stations 
returned answers in the spring, and thirty-two in the autumn. 

The same stations were selected as in the autumn of 1881, 
with the exception of Dursey Island, which was substituted for 
the Calf Kock ; and Dungarvan, which was added in the autumn 
of 1882. 

Some improvement in filling the schedules is apparent. A 
few errors in the identification of species probably have been 
made, but no blame is attached to the light-keepers, who 
gratuitously observe for us to the best of their ability. 

In accordance with a desire expressed by the other members 
of the Committee, and for the sake of uniformity, the observations 
have been arranged under each species instead of under the day 
of the month, and the light-stations are arranged geographically, 
beginning at the Fastnet, in Cork, and going round by the east 
and north to the west coast. The entries in the spring schedules 
are placed first under each species. 

The severe frost which visited these islands for about ten 
days, beginning on December 6th, caused a local migration of 
many land-birds to the sea-coast, and several entries occur in 
the schedules at this time. 

The weather observations taken by the light-keepers, when of 
an ordinary character, have been sometimes omitted ; but with 
scarcely an exception every entry in the schedules, which refers 
to the occurrence of a particular species on a given date, is 
recorded. 

The name given by the light-keepers to the birds is always 
adopted, and generally without comment ; but occasionally 
inverted commas are used when it appears advantageous to 
insert them. 

Looking through the records, and comparing them with 
reports from the English coast and elsewhere, it is evident that 

L 



74 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

Ireland lies comparatively out of the track of migrants, and its 
western stations are especially poor. 

The Tuskar Rock, on the Wexford coast, is certainly the best 
station. Large numbers of migrants strike the lantern there, 
and many are killed. Being the nearest land to the Welsh 
coast, and the extreme south-eastern point of Ireland, the 
Tuskar is well situated for observation. 

A Snowy Owl was shot on the Island of Innishtrahull, off the 
coast of Donegal, and forwarded by the light-keeper there to the 
Museum of Science and Art, Keldare Street, Dublin. 

Observations on Gulls and Gannets are numerous, and it is 
difficult to estimate their value, as some light-keepers have given 
them much attention, while others have scarcely noticed these 
species owing to their frequent occurrence. 

The presence of the Gannet all round the coast during the 
breeding season would seem to show that a large proportion do 
not breed. The little Skellig Rock, off the Kerry coast, is the 
only Irish breeding-place of the Gannet ; and when visited in 
1880, by Mr. Barrington, there were scarcely thirty pairs 
breeding. 

In the returns many entries occur which probably do not 
refer to migrating birds, but it has been thought prudent not to 
omit any from the printed report. 

It is remarked by some light-keepers that more birds strike 
fixed than revolving or flash lights. 

Attention is called to the great scarcity of Starlings in 1882 
in several schedules. 

Conclusions are premature for a year or two, and it is as well 
to let the observations of the light-keepers speak for themselves. 

Great results are not anticipated from this enquiry, but few 
satisfactory ones will be forthcoming unless it be continued ; it 
is therefore essential that the light-keepers should assist us for 
some years longer, and we trust they will do so. 

To Captain Boxer, R.N., Inspector of Irish Lights, we are 
again indebted for friendly aid; as well ae to the Commissioners 
of Irish Lights, who were good enough to take forty copies of 
last year's report, and distribute them to the various observers. 

Alexander G. More. 
Richard M. Barrington. 



List of Light-stations. 



4. 
5. 
5. 
6. 
7. 
8. 
9. 
10. 

11. 

12. 
13. 
14. 
15. 

16. 
17. 
18. 
19. 
20. 
21. 
22. 
23. 

24. 

25. 
26. 
27. 

28. 



Fastnet, Co. Cork 

Galley Head, do 

Old Head, Kinsale, do 

Mine Head, Waterford 

Dungarvan, do 

Coningbeg Lt.-ship, Wexford 
Barrels Kock Lt.-ship, do. ... 

Tuskar, do 

Arklow Sth. Lt.-ship,Wicklow 

Wicklow Head 

Kish Bank Lt.-ship, Dublin... 

Howth Baily, do 

Eockabill, do 

Copeland Island, Down 

Maidens, Antrim 

Eathlin, do 

Innishtrahull, Donegal 

Dunree Head, do 

Lough Swilly, do 

Tory Island, do 

Arranmore, do 

Eathlin O'Birne, do 

Killybegs, do 

Oyster Island, N. Sligo 

Broadhaven, Mayo 

Eagle Island, E., do 

Eagle Island, W., do 

Blackrock, do 

Blacksod Point, do 



.9 
a, 


X 



X 

X 
X 

o 

X 




X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 

o 

X 
X 

o 

X 



X 
X 
X 
X 



29. Clare Island, do x 



a 

I Miles 

■g from 

<j shore. 



Names of Observers. 




X 





8 



XX- 




X 
X 
X 
X 



X 7 

X - 



10 

4 

7 
7 



X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X - 

X - 

X 9 
X 5 
X 2 

X - 
X 1 

X 



30. Slyne Head, N., Galway x x 

31. Slyne Head, S., do x o 

32. Arran Island, N., do x x 

33. Straw Island, do x x 

34. Straw Island, S., do o x 

35. Loop Head, Clare o o - 

36. Samphire Island, Kerry x x ^ 

37. Tearaght, do x x 9 

88. Valentia, do x x - 

39. Skelligs, do x x 9 

40. Dursey Island, Cork x x | 



John Whelan. 
(George Dunleavy and 
[Martin Kennedy. 
Joseph Hammond. 
Wm. Higginbotham. 
Patrick CuUen. 
Michael Doyle. 
Eichard Hamilton. 
William O'Shea. 

William Daly. 
(William Dunne and 
I James Higginbotham. 
Joseph Hammond. 
John Walsh. 
Patrick Keenan. 
John A. Murray. 
W. H. James. 
John Stapleton. 
Henry Eedmond. 
Thomas Sweeny. 
Henry Williams. 
Joseph Hill. 
Daniel Hawkins. 
John Young. 
(Joseph Williams and 
(Michael Duffy. 
Eobert W. Eedmond. 
Matthew Healy. 
Martin Kennedy. 
J. Williams. 
J. Eeilly and 
G. H. Brownell. 
John Gillan and 
Eobert TyrreU. 
William Callaghan. 
John Kelly. 
Charles Boyle. 
John O'Donnell. 

(Michael O'Donnell and 
(J. Williams. 

Edward McCarron. 
(Thomas McKenna and 
(Joseph Williams. 

Henry Gardiner. 

James Keenan. 



o — No reply. 



X = Shedule returned partly or wholly filled. 



76 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 



General Remarks of Light-Keepers. 

Galley Head. — " Spring : There is a total absence of land- 
birds at this station. Autumn : Sea-birds passing are, I may 
say, the only birds to be seen. The Curlew and ' Small Black 
Crow ' are here all the year round." — John Whelan. 

Old Heady Kinsale. — ''Spring: No migration of birds ob- 
served this spring." — George Dunleavy. 

Dungarvan. — " Autumn : With very rare exceptions no birds 
strike this lantern." — William Higginbotham. 

Coningheg Light-ship. — "Autumn: Very few birds killed 
against lantern since the light was changed from steady to 
flash light."— Patrick Cullen. 

Barrels Rock Light-ship. — " Autumn : This is a very quick 
red light, flashing 30'' ; no birds ever struck the lantern. I 
believe the quick revolution frightens them away, as in fog and 
thick weather no birds ever stay about the light like the ships 
that have the bright light." — Michael Doyle. 

Tuskar Rock. — " Spring : Not many birds this spring : a good 
deal more last year. Autumn : The ' Black Diver ' leaves about 
May 1st, and returns in October." — Richard Hamilton. 

Kish Bank Light-ship. — "Autumn : Very few birds pass this 
station. Birds seldom strike our lantern, as it is a revolving 
light. September and October are the chief months for the 
migration of birds from the Welsh coast. "^—William Daly. 

Howth Baily. — "Autumn: Sea Gulls and Cormorants all 
through the winter. Puffins disappeared about middle of 
December." — William Dunne. 

Copeland Island. — "Autumn: Large numbers of birds resort 
to this island and Mew Island during the winter months, and 
generally leave early in March. The species seen daily are as 
follows: — Oystercatchers, about 50; Wild Duck, 10 to 40; 
Sandpipers, 20; Cormorants, 8 to 10; Starlings, 20 to 40; 
Blackbirds, 4 to 6 ; ' Grey ' Plover, 2 to 20 ; Curlew, 10 to 100 in 
each flock." — John Walsh. 

South Maidens. — " I saw no birds strike the lantern since I 
came to this station." — Patrick Keenan. 

Rathlin. — " Spring : The Ducks are breeding on every little 
pond and moss on the island ; the ' Shell Duck ' breeds here. 



IBISH COAST. 77 

Any amount of sea-birds. Jan. 14th, 1883, the species of birds 
remaining on the island at this date are : — * Large Gulls, 
Sparrows, Linnets, Stonechats, Black Crows, White-backed 
Crows, Golden Plover, Green Plover, Bald Coot, Curlew, Wild 
Duck, Snipe, Eedshank or Sandpiper, Starling (they have been 
scarce), Blackbirds, Thrushes, Cormorants, Water Wagtails, one 
Snow Bunting (very few this season).'" — John A. Murray. 

Dunree Head. — ** Autumn : Cormorants are here all the year 
round ; they build their nest under the lighthouse. They go up 
the Lough every morning, and return in the evening. No birds 
strike this light. Land-birds are very scarce." — John Stapleton. 

Lough Swilly. — '' Autumn : Birds seldom strike this lantern. 
Barnacle Duck and Widgeon frequent the head of Lough Swilly 
from about Oct. 1st to end of March." — Henry Eedmond. 

Arranmore. — '' Spring : The birds that breed on this island 
are 'Stonechats,' 'Gulls,' 'Puffins,' ' Kavens,' 'Goldfinches,' 
* Hawks,' and ' Ked-legged Jackdaws ' (Choughs). Autumn: This 
station seems out of the line of passing birds." — Henry Williams. 

Killybegs. — "Autumn: The number of birds striking the 
lantern has been very few since 1879 ; only the two named in the 
schedule (Woodcock) have struck up to the present. The frost 
and snow of 1879 made great havoc among Thrushes, Blackbirds, 
Starlings, and Fieldfares. I saw no Starlings since 1881, which 
is very unusual. In the spring of 1882 I saw two very fine 
specimens of the Northern Diver ; they remained until late in 
summer. Puffins arrive in large numbers early in July, and 
usually leave en masse towards the middle of August. Cormorants 
muster pretty strongly in the autumn months. Several Grey 
Gulls and four or five Black-headed remained here during the 
present winter. I observed one Gull a few days ago of a dirty 
white or creamy colour, no feathers of any other colour being 
visible. The Sea Swallow, or ' Pirr Gull,' used to visit us in 
thousands formerly ; but since the autumn of 1878 not one has 
been seen here. When stationed at the mouth of the Boyne, in 
1876, a few of these birds used to breed there, laying their eggs 
on the top of little sandy hillocks." — Daniel Hawkins. 

Oyster Island, North. — " Scarcely any land-birds visit this 
island." — John Young. 

Broadhaven. — " Autumn : The Gannet does not breed on the 
Stags, but is to be seen after herring." — Michael Duffy. 



78 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

Eagle Island, East. — " Spring : did not observe any birds of 
a migratory kind pass this island." — Eobert W. Redmond. 

Eagle Island, West. — ''Autumn: I have carefully watched 
the movements of birds, and have not found anything worth 
reporting. Sea-fowl occasionally after herring in large groups ; 
but they come and go no particular way." — Matthew Healy. 

Clare Island. — "Autumn: Very few migratory birds at this 
station in 1882, with the exception of Gulls, Guillemots, PufiQns, 
and Eazorbills, of which large numbers arrived in the latter part 
of March, and left on Aug. 18th. Cormorants and Kittiwakes all 
the year round. Large numbers of Grouse from August to 
January. Snipe and Woodcock, November to March. Two 
large Eagles have their eyrie on the cliffs of a mountain close to 
the lighthouse : they kill several lambs. Geese, Ducks, and 
Hens, and carry them to the mountain with the greatest ease." 
— George H. Brownell. 

Slyne Head, North. — "Autumn: Very few land-birds visit 
this station." — Robert Tyrell. 

Slyne Head, South. — "Spring: The Tern used to arrive for 
breeding perhaps about May 4th or 6th ; this year they did not 
come until June 4th, and not one bird hatched on the island this 
year. Sea-hawks arrive the first week in April, and leave about 
the end of October. I have not seen a Crow for two years, nor a 
Starling this year." — William Callaghan. 

Arran Island, North. — " Autumn : No birds struck the lantern 
in 1882. I have not observed any Blackbirds, Thrushes, or 
Starlings, during the past year." — John Kelly. 

Straiv Island. — " Autumn : All descriptions of birds were 
fewer this year than usual." — Charles Boyle. 

Arran Island, South. — " Autumn : Only a few ' Stares ' struck 
the lantern this winter." — John O'Donnell. 

Samphire Island. — " Spring : Not a single bird struck last 
winter, the chief cause being that we have a red light all round 
east and south, which birds never strike. Almost all birds strike 
with S.E. winds, and generally on the east side of the lantern." 
— Michael O'Donnell. 

T ear aght Rock. — "Spring: The Sea-parrots are so plentiful 
here (April 25th) that on sonie occasions the whole island is 
completely covered with them : they are just now beginning to 
find their way into their holes. There is some solitary bird here. 



IBISH COAST. 79 

SO it seems, makes a noise so loud, or crows so loud, in the cliffs, 
that one can hear it distinctly in the dwellings. It sounds some- 
thing as follows : * kuck, kuck, ko, kuck, kuck, ko.' This is 
repeated a few times, and then there is an interval of some 
minutes. So far I can neither see nor hear it in the daytime. 
It is called in this place the * Night-bird.' (See ' Zoologist,' 
January, 1883). The Sea-parrot does not lay more than one 
egg unless it is taken away, when another is laid at the end of a 
week, and if this is taken away another egg is laid; then no 
more are laid that year. The young remain in their holes until 
they are fully feathered. They leave them in July, and are well 
guarded in the sea by the old birds. It is my opinion they do 
not ascend on the island any more after they have left their 
holes. The only way the young birds are distinguished from the 
old ones the following spring is that their feet are still a little 
black. The Razorbill begins to lay its egg about May 18th. 
The parent birds relieve each other while hatching. I actually 
saw one Razorbill come up to another which was on the egg, 
peck it, when off it went, and the new comer at once took its 
place. The Stormy Petrels breed here, but in small quantity. 
Autumn : Referring to the cry of the * Night-bird ' (Manx Shear- 
water), the letter 'a' should be added to the *ko,' and it would 
then read, ' kuck, kuck, ko-a.' The cry is as distinct as that of 
the Cuckoo, and would be heard about the same distance. I 
never remember to have seen a Crested Cormorant until I came 
here. Starlings and Thrushes come off with easterly winds 
when there is frost or snow on the mainland. About a dozen 
Grey Linnets remained here during December ; also a few Snow 
Buntings. There are a couple of hundred Titlarks summer and 
winter ; they do not migrate. The same might be said of the 
Common Wren; about a dozen." — Edward McCarron. 

Valentia. — " Spring : No bird struck this lantern for five 
years. This point is too far west, and is out of the track of 
migrating birds." — Thomas McKenna. 

Eagle. 
Skelligs. — April 4th, two Eagles flying about the island. 

Hawk. 

Rathlin Island. — April 1st, five Hawks, stopping in vicinity. 
June 22nd, four seen. 



80 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

Innishtr ahull. — March 5th, small Hawks. 

Slyne Head^ South. — May 26th, two Hawks, noon to 4 p.m. 
" There are many Sea Hawks about this island. They arrive the 
first week in April, and leave about the end of October." 

Howth Baily. — Dec. 13th, two Hawks. Jan. 2nd, one. 

Rathlin Island. — Nov. 10th, *'two Game Hawks coursing a 
Pigeon ; " 16th, one Sparrow Hawk. 

Innishtrahull. — Dec. 16th, one Hawk; 19th, ditto. 

Arranmore. — Nov. 18th, one. 

Killyhegs. — Nov. 26th, two remained about a week. 

Clare Island. — Nov. 23rd, two Kestrels. 

Tearaght.—BeG. 9th, ''one Falcon." Jan. 8th, 1883, two 
Sparrow Hawks. 

Dungarvan. — Nov. 14th, one Sparrow Hawk; 16th, one 

** Falcon Hawk ; " 25th, two Sparrow Hawks. Jan. 4th, 1883, 

one. 

Snowy Owl. 

Innishtr ahidl. — Nov. 19th, one shot (now in Museum of 
Science and Art, Kildare Street, Dublin). 

Thrush. 

Slyne Head, North. — April 17th., one Thrush killed, 2 a.m., 
striking lantern; 29th, flocks of Thrushes pitched on this 
island. July 8th, five Thrushes struck lantern, one killed. 

Skelligs. — Jan. 3rd, 1882, eight Thrushes perched on island. 

Galley Head. — Dec. 13th, Thrushes going south. 

Old Heady Kinsale. — Dec. 6th, hundreds of " Mountain 
Thrush ; " 8th, some hundreds of Thrushes. 

Tuskar Rock. — Oct. 13th, Thrushes continually striking, ten 
killed, and one "Mountain Thrush." 

Kish Bank Light-ship. — Oct. 12th, 13th and 14th, Thrushes 
about lantern. 

Howth Baily. — Oct. 14th, two killed. Dec. 9th, one seen ; 
11th, one ; 12th to 18th, several about station, frost. Jan. 13th, 
1883, Thrushes about light. 

Rockabill. — Oct. 4th, Thrushes. Dec. 12th, ditto. 

Copeland Island. — Nov. 9th, two Thrushes killed. Dec. 18th, 
four ditto. 

Innishtrahull. — Oct. 15th, Thrushes about lantern, one killed. 
Nov. 7th, Thrushes. Jan. 5th, 1883, ditto. 



IKISH COAST. 81 

Lough Sivilly. — Dec. 14th, one. 

Tory Island. — Oct. 19th, one struck, not killed. Dec. 10th, 
one seen. 
« Arranmore. — Oct. 22nd, one. Nov. 18th, one. 

Rathlin O'Birne, — Dec. 13th, one Thrush. 
Killyhegs. — Dec. 10th, about twenty came when the frost 
began. 

Clare Island. — Dec. 9th, several, 
fc' Tearaght. — Dec. 14th, half a dozen Thrushes ; 24th, a dozen. 
Valentia. — Oct. 8th, one killed against lantern. 
Skelligs. — Nov. 3rd, ten. During December a few were 
observed daily on island ; also on Jan. 8th, 1883. 
Dursey Island. — Oct. 21st, four Thrushes going E. 

Fieldfare. 

Valentia. — Nov. 29th, two Fieldfares. 
Dungarvan. — Nov. 11th, twelve. 

Blackbird. 

Slyne Head, North. — March 20th, one Blackbird killed 
against lantern, 3 a.m. 

Skelligs. — Jan. 25th, four Blackbirds on island. April 3rd, 
three ditto. 

Old Head, Kinsale. — Dec. 8th, several Blackbirds. 

Barrels Rock Light-ship. — Dec. 7th, four flying north. 

Tuskar Rock. — Oct. 7th, one ; 13th, thirty struck, all killed. 
Nov. 14th, three ditto. 

Kish Bank Light-ship. — Oct. 14th, Blackbirds about lantern. 

Nov. 15th, hen Blackbird killed, '' being the first bird I have 

seen killed by our lantern for the last two years." Dec. 10th, 

two blackbirds. 

k Hoivth Baily. — Dec. 6th, fourteen in fields; 12th, one. 

Jan. 13th, 1883, five about light, 
k Rockabill. — Oct. 4th and 12th, Blackbirds striking lantern. 
* Dec. 12th, Blackbirds seen. 

Copeland Island. — Sept. 21st, three Blackbirds killed. Oct. 
8th, one ditto. Dec. 18th, one killed. 

Innishtr ahull. — Oct. 10th to 15th, Blackbirds about lantern ; 
18th, three struck, killed. Nov. 7th, Blackbirds, 10 a.m. to 
4 p.m. Jan. 5th, 1883, three or four. 

M 



k 



82 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

Tory Island. — Oct. 19th, one female struck, not killed. 

Arranmore. — Oct. 21st, one. Nov. 13th, one. 

Bathlin O'Birne. — Oct. 19th, one struck, killed, 2 a.m. 
Nov. 13th, one. Dec. 1st, one. 

Killyhegs. — Dec. 10th, about twenty came on the appearance 
of frost. 

Clare Island. — Dec. 9th, several. 

Slyne Head, North. — Sept. 9th, two. Oct. 11th, two. Dec. 
15th, two. 

Straw Island. — Nov. 13th, a flock of Blackbirds, 2 a.m., a 
few struck, but none killed ; fog and rain. 

Valentia. — Oct. 2nd, one killed against lantern. 

Skelligs. — Nov. 15th and 22nd, and at intervals during 
December, a few were seen on island. 

Robin. 
Eagle Island, West. — March 2nd, caught a Robin in an out- 
house, wind N., moderate. 

Iloivth Baily. — Dec. 20th, four about station. 
Innishtrahidl. — Oct. 29th, one, 8 a.m., wind S.S.E. 
Lough. Swilly. — Dec. 1st, one; 2nd, one; 6th, one. 

Stonechat. 

Arranmore. — April 7th, eight ** Stonechats " arrived. 

Rathlin O'Birne. — March 23rd, four ''Stonechats;" seen 
also April 4th and 8th. May 8th, they rested on the island. 

Eagle Islajid, West. — April, " Stonechats " arrived, about 
eighteen. 

Galley Head.— Oct. 30th, the " Stonechick" has left. 

Eagle Island, West. — Nov., saw a few ** Stonechats." 
[Some of the above entries may refer to the Wheatear.j 

GoLDEN-CRESTED WrEN. 

Slyne Head, North. — May 11th, one Golden-crested Wren 
killed. 

Tuskar Bock. — July 27th, two Golden Wrens ; also on Aug. 
6th and 9th. Oct. 12th, twelve, one killed; 13th, continually 
striking all night. 

Howth Baily. — Oct. 9th, five- Golden Wrens struck lantern ; 
12th, two ditto. Dec. 17th, six. 



IRISH COAST. 83 

Rathlin Island, — Aug. 26th, one. Oct. 9th, two (one killed) ; 
13th, five struck (two killed). Nov. 30th, four seen. 

Innishtr ahull. — Oct. 15th, Golden Wrens about lantern. 

Arran Island^ South. — Oct. 14th, fourteen struck lantern; 
none killed. 

Wren. 

Arklow Bank, South. — April 15th, six Wrens going N.W.. 
wind light N.E., cloudy ; 18th, one Wren on deck, 5 a.m. 

Skelligs. — Feb. 22nd, two Wrens on island. April 9th, two 
Wrens on island. 

Tuskar Rock. — July 27th, four "Common Wrens." Seen 
also Aug. 5th, 9th, and 31st; and Oct. 8th and 9th. 

Howth Baily. — Dec. 10th, six flying south ; 16th, three. 

Innishtrahull. — Oct. 15th, " Brown Wrens " about lantern. 
Nov. 7th, ditto seen. 

Tory Island. — Oct. 6th, two Wrens caught on lantern. 

Arranmore. — Oct. 22nd, one seen. 

Rathlin O'Birne. — Oct. 28th, one seen. 

Eagle Island, West. — Nov., saw two pairs of Wrens. 

Sly7ie Head, North. — Sept. 9th, two Wrens seen. 

Arran Island, North. — Aug. 7th, " three Common Wrens " 
going S.E. Dec. 9th, two. 

Skelligs. — Oct. 19th, two. Dec. 5th, four ; 13th, two ; Jan. 
5th, 1883, two. All alighted on island. 

Tits. 

Tuskar Rock. — March 18th, 10 p.m. to 5 a.m., continually 
striking, seventeen killed ; wind fresh S.W., fog. April 21st, 
10.30 p.m. to 4 a.m., constantly striking, twelve killed ; wind 
fresh S.E., fog. July 27th, Titmice continually striking, wind 
fresh S. ; also on 6th, 9th, and 31st Aug. 

Copeland Island. — Sept. 10th, six Titmice killed ; 21st, two 
ditto. Oct. 8th, four ditto. 

Innishtrahull. — Oct. 14th, Titmice at lantern; 15th, one 

killed. 

Wagtail. 

Galley Head.— Oct. 30th, the Wagtail has left. 
Rathlin Island. — Aug. 26th, three remained on island. Nov. 
9th, one seen. 



84 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

InnishtrahulL — Dec. 19th, one. 
Lon{/h Sivilh/. — Dec. 14th, two. 
Samphire Island. — Oct. 27th, five Wagtails on rock. 

Larks. 

Arkloic Bank, South, — Noticed on April 5th, 7th, and 15th. 

Rathlin O'Birne.— UsiYch 8th, 10th, 11th, and 12th, Sky 
Larks seen, one to five in number ; they rested on the island. 
Observed earlier this year than last year. March 22nd, Titlarks 
mating ; they rested on the island. 

Eagle Island, JVest. — April, about eighteen Titlarks arrived. 

Slyne Head, North. — April 29th, flocks of Larks pitched on 
island. July 13th, one Lark killed against lantern. 

Straw Island. — From April 3rd to May 20th, continuous 
flocks of Common Field Larks passing towards the mainland, 
generally about 3 p.m. 

Valentia. — April 3rd, small flocks of Larks and frequently to 
end of month. May 3rd and 16th, a few Larks. 

Galley Head. — Dec. 13th, Larks going south. 

Old Head, Kinsale. — Dec. 8th, Larks. 

Coningheg Light-ship. — Dec. 13th, one killed against lantern. 

Barrels Rock Light-ship. — Dec. 7th, one rested on ship. 

Tuskar Rock. — Oct 9th, Larks and Titlarks ; also on Oct. 14th. 

Kish Bank Light-ship. — Nov. 30th, large flocks of Sky Larks. 

Howth Baily. — Nov. 20th, about two hundred Larks. Dec. 
7th, twenty ; 11th, ten ; 12th to 18th, sevei'al, frost. Jan. 15th, 
1883, Titlarks about. 

Copeland Island. — Sept. 10th, ten Larks killed ; 21st, four 
ditto. Oct. 8th, seven ditto. Nov. 9th, eight ditto. Dec. 18th, 
two ditto. 

Innishtrahidl. — Oct. 14th, Titlarks at lantern; 15th, Larks, 
one killed. Nov. 19th, Titlarks. Dec. 15th, flock of fifty. 

Tory Island. — Oct. 14th, one *' female " Lark killed. 

Eagle Island, West. — Sept., Sky Larks and Titlarks seem to 
be departing. 

Clare Island. — Jan. 1st, 1883, twenty Titlarks. 

Arran Island, North. — Nov. 12th, eleven. Dec. 9th, six. 
Jan. 4th, 1883, two. 

Dangarvan, — Nov. 14th, small flocks of Sky Larks ; 15th, 
one struck, not killed, Dec. 5th and 15th, large flocks. 



ibish coast. 85 

Snow Bunting. 

Arranmore. — April 5th, four Snow Buntings left island. 

Galley Head. — Nov. 30th, two '* Snow Birds " passed north. 

Rathlin Island. — Nov. 5th, seven Snow Buntings arrived and 
will remain some time ; 31st, thirty. 

InnishtraJmll. — Nov. 7th, Snow Buntings; 19th to end of 
month, frequented island. Dec. 23rd and 24th, fifty to one 
hundred in a flock ; wind, strong N.W. Jan. 3rd, 1883, Snow 
Buntings daily to 18th on island. 

Tory Island. — Nov. 9th, one flock. Jan. 6th and 7th, 1883, 
Snow Buntings. 

Arranmore. — Oct. 4th, one seen. Nov. 4th, 18th ; Dec. 4th, 
5th, 12th ; Jan. 4th and 6th, 1883 ; — on all these dates some 
seen. 

Chaffinch. 

Kish Bank Light-ship. — Oct. 25th, flock of Chaffinches going 
W. ; 30th, four Chaffinches. 

Arramnore. — Oct. 26th, four Chaffinches. Jan. 4th, 1883, 
one. 

Sparrow. 

Rathlin Island. — June 9th, fifteen or sixteen Sparrows ; 
remained two or three days. Dec. 16th, Sparrows. 

" Goldfinch." 
Arranmore. — May 4th, six Goldfinches *' come to build." 
Valentia. — Oct. 6th, four Goldfinches. Nov. 8th, five. Dec. 
18th, eighteen. 

[The Goldfinch is now rare and local in Ireland ; hence 

inverted commas.] 

Linnet. 

Galley Head. — March 4th, one hundred or more going N. 
May 21st, flocks of small birds, " taken to be Linnets," going N. 

Coningheg Light-ship. — March 9th, two Linnets flying west- 
ward. 

Tuskar Rock. — March 18th, 10 p.m. to 5 a.m., continually 
striking, seven killed ; wind fresh S.W., fog. April 21st, 10.30 
p.m. to 4 a.m., continually striking, five killed ; wind fresh S.E., 
fog. 

Clare Island. — Flocks of " Grey Linnets " noticed on March 
6th, 10th, 28th ; April 11th, 27th ; May 3rd, 30th ; and June 



86 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

20tb. The flocks were contiiiuoiis on March 28th and April 
11th. 

Slyne Heady North, — April 29th, flocks of Linnets pitched on 
island. 

Galley Head. — Dec. 13th, Linnets going south. 

Old Heady Kinsale. — Dec. 8th, Linnets and Finches. 

Coningheg Light-ship. — Nov. 8th, six Linnets flying N.W. ; 
15th, seven Linnets. Dec. 7th, three Linnets alighted on ship ; 
19th, one ditto. 

Tuskar Rock. — July 27th, Green Linnets striking ; also on 
Aug. 6th and 9th ; Oct. 9th and 13th. 

Kish Bank Light-ship. — Oct. 21st, about ** thii'ty Chaffinches 
or Linnets." 

Howth Baity. — Dec. 6th, about sixty ; 7th, eight ; 12th to 
18th, several ; frost. 

Rockahill. — Oct. 12th, Linnets. Dec. 20th, Green Linnets 
all day. 

Rathlin Island. — Aug. 7th, flocks ; 19th, ditto. Sept. 12th, 
twenty-eight Green Linnets. Oct. 1st, thirty Grey Linnets ; 18th, 
Grey Linnets. Seen also on Nov. 1st and 3rd; and on 14th 
several flocks arrived and apparently remained on island some 
time. During December several flocks seen at intervals. Jan. 
3rd, 1883, one flock. 

Linishtr ahull. — Oct. 10th to 13th, flocks of Grey Linnets all 
day ; six or eight struck lantern, none killed ; 15th, flocks. Dec. 
31st, Green and Grey Linnets ; flocks of 100 to 150. 

Lough Siuilly. — Oct. 12th, Linnets. Dec. 24th, flocks of 
Linnets. 

Arranmore. — Oct. 24th, forty Grey Linnets. 

Rathlin O'Birne. — Oct. 28th, ten Grey Linnets. 

Killyhegs. — Oct. 26th, twenty-five to thii-ty Grey Linnets ; left 
same day, going south. '' They were accompanied by several 
small birds of different species." 

Broadhaven. — Dec. 2nd, twenty-five Linnets. Jan. 7th, 1883, 
seven. 

Slyne Heady North. — Sept. 28th, twelve Linnets. Oct. 27th, 
three. 

Arran Islandy North. — Aug. 5th, large flock. Nov. 12th, 
thirty to forty. 

Straw Island. — Sept. 13th, thirty Linnets. Remained ten 
days on island. 



IRISH COAST. 87 

^ Valentia. — Oct. 6th, ten. Nov. 4th, two ; 20th, ten. Dec. 
6th to 20th, eight to twenty at intervals. 

Skelligs. — Oct. 12th, twelve " Buntings " perched on island. 

wL "Bullfinch." 

V Rathlin O'Birne, — March 9th, one Bullfinch ; 10th, three 
Bullfinches ; wind strong S.W. 

Tuskar Rock. — July 27th, Aug. 5th, 9th, and 31st, Sept. 6th, 
Oct. 13th, Bullfinches constantly striking. " This is a bird like 
the Green Linnet, but more white on the outside of the wing." 
(Chaffinch ?). 

Starling. 

South Maidens Light, — May 11th, two dozen Starlings, 11 am., 
misty fog. 

Rathlin Island. — April 15th, seven remained all day; 27th, 
they are building here. June 10th, Starlings left. 

Galley Head. — Sept. 18th, forty to fifty Starlings going N. 
Oct. 9th, continuous flocks passing N. ; 20th, flocks of 100 to 
300, remaining in locality. Dec. 13th, Starlings going S. 

Old Head, Kinsale. — Nov. 2nd, 300 Starlings ; 4th, 400 or 
500. Dec. 8th, hundreds. 

Coningheg Light-ship. — Nov. 12th, fifty flying N. ; 15th, eight 
flying N.E. Dec. 9th, flocks going N. ; 12th, one caught on 
board. 

Tuskar Rock. — Aug. 31st, Starlings striking. Oct. 8th and 
13th, Nov. 14th, ditto. 

Kish Bank Light-ship. — Oct. 12th, 13th, 14th, 15th, Starlings 
about lantern ; 27th, two. Nov. 6th and 11th, flocks going W. 
Dec. 11th, two. 

Howth Baily. — Nov. 7th, large flock ; 14th, ditto. Dec. 4th, 
fifty ; 12th to 18th, several ; frost. 

Rockabill. — Dec. 12th, Starlings. 

Rathlin Island. — Nov. 6th, three. Dec. 16th, flocks. 

Innishtrahidl. — Nov. 7th, a flock of eight or nine. 

Oyster Island, North. — Dec. 4th, large flock passing S.W. 

Claj^e Island. — Dec. 6th, two flocks. 

Slyne Head, North. — Aug. 30th, two Starlings. Dec. 24th, 
three ; 27th, forty. 

Stratv Island. — Nov. 10th, 120. Dec. 7th, forty. Jan. 11th, 
1883, forty. 



88 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

Arran Island, South. — Oct. 18th, thirty ** Stares." 

Tearaght.— Dec. 15th, about 150 Starlings ; 21st, 100. 

Skelligs. — Dec. 5th, twenty came to island ; 12th, forty. 

Durseij Island. — Oct. 16th, forty ; 20th, large flock going S.E. 
Nov. 14th, twenty going E. Dec. 10th and 13th, large flocks 
going S.E. 

Dungarvan. — Nov. 11th, small flocks; 17th, 21st, some seen; 
25th, one killed against lantern. 

Chough. 

Rathlin Island. — June 5th, Red-legged Crows. " They make 
their home here." 

Blacksod. — April 27th, about eight Choughs. Seldom seen at 
this station. June 17th, four to six Choughs going S. 

Raven. 

Black Rock, Mayo. — May 23rd, thirty-six " Ravens," 7 a.m. ; 
wind light W. "It is remarkable to see so many of these birds 
together, as there is seldom more than three or four." 

Slyne Head, South. — June 22nd, two Ravens. 

Arran Island, North. — Aug. 5th, two Ravens. 

Hooded Crow. 

Rathlin Island. — April 13th, six White-backed Crows. ** They 
never leave." 

Rathlin O'Birne. — March 23rd, four ''.Saddle-backed Crows." 
Two of these Crows remained and nested in cliff. 

Broadhaven. — April 20th, two " Scar Crows " going S.W. 

Clare Island. — April 20th, flocks of Grey Crow. May 5th, 
ditto, going S. 

Slyne Head, North. — March 3rd, seven Grey Crows ; 6th, 
eleven ditto. 

Dursey Island. — April 9th, six Grey Crows going S.E. June 
4th, 12th, Grey Crows going N.E. 

Gaily Head. — Dec. 30th, the Grey-backed Crow has dis- 
appeared. 

Howth Baily. — Jan. 6th, 1883, flock of forty flying E. 

Rathlin Island. — Sept. 16th, ''five Grey-backed Crows or 
Choughs" (Jackdaws?). They breed on the island. Dec. 12tb, 
two "White-backed." 



IKISH COAST. 89 

Innislitrahull, — Dec. 6th, ten Grey Crows at all hours. They 
breed on island. 

Lough Swilly, — Dec. 5th, one Grey-backed Crow ; 24th, two. 

Arran Island^ North. — Aug. 5th, four. 

Straw Island. — Nov. 30th, four. Dec. 15th, five. 

Valentia. — Nov. 12th, four. Dec. 8th, tweAty. 

Dursey Island. — Aug. 22nd and 25th, eight ; one or two seen 
also on Oct. 9th, Nov. 11th, and Dec. 24th. 

Dungarvan, — Dec. 5th, two. 

EOOKS. 

Tuskar Rock. — April 6th, one flock, 7 a.m., going W., wind 
light E.N.E. ; 21st, one flock going W. 

Arklow Bank, South. — April 11th, one "Crow" going N.W. 

Rathlin Island. — April 14th, thirty ''Black Crows," coming 
from Scotland, wind strong N.E. ; 23rd, forty Black Crows, 
coming from Scotland, wind light N.W., foggy. May 5th, fifteen 
Black Crows. June 23rd and 30th, several. 

Lough Swilly. — June 4th, flights of Books. July 1st and 
15th, great numbers of Books ; 31st, a few. 

Blacksod. — April 13th, large flock of Crows (Books) all day 
constantly passing. May 22nd, Books. 

Clare Island. — March 20th, two large flocks of Black Crows 
going N. 

Slyne Head, A^or^/i.-^ April 26th, flock of Books coming from 
the N.E. June 12th, one flock of Crows (Books ?). July 21st, 
flocks of Books flying in different directions. 

Straiv Island. — May 11th, 100 Crows (Books?). 

Valentia. — April 21st, a few Crows ; also on May 21st. 

Kish Bank Light-ship. — April 17th, one Crow going N.W. ; 
24th, one alighted on ship. 

Hoivth Baily. — Dec. 14th, three; 15th, six; 24th, sixty 
flying W. 

Rockahill. — Dec. 12th, Black Crows alighted on the rocks. 

Rathlin Island. — Aug. 13th, thirty. Sept. 10th, ditto. Oct. 
6th, forty ; 19th, forty. Nov. 13th, thirteen. In all these cases 
going S. A few seen on Dec. 11th, 12th, and 22nd. 

Innishtrahull. — Oct. 7th, eight " Black Crows." Dec. 10th, 
one. 

Tory Island. — Nov. 29th, eight Crows. 

N 



90 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

Oyster Island^ North. — Oct. 12th, twenty Eooks going inland. 
Clare Island. — Jan. 4tli, 1883, six. 
Slyne Head, North. — Oct. 27th, four. Dec. 27th, ten. 
Samphire Island. — Oct. 4th, about forty ; Oct. 12th, a very 
large flock passing to opposite shore. They retui*n about sunset. 
Valentia. — Oct. 8th, four ; 24th, five. 
Skelligs. — Dec. 13th, twenty going E. 

Jackdaw. 
Tearaght. — Dec. 10th, two; 17th, one. 

Magpie. 
Lough Sivilly. — Oct. 5th, one Magpie, 11 a.m. 
Arran Island, North. — Aug. 10th, two. 

Swallow. 

Galley Head. — May 12th, from thirty to fifty Swallows going 
N.W. 

Mine Head. — April 21st, twelve Swallows, noon, wind S.S.E., 
strong, cloudy ; the first arrivals. 

Tuskar Rock. — April 24th, one, 8.20 a.m., going W. 

Arklow Bank, South. — April 5th, two going N.W. 

Kish Bank Light-ship. — April 18th, two going S.E. 

Dunree Head. — June 15th, flock of Swallows. 

Lough Swilly. — May 4th, a few ; the first this season. 

Arranmore. — May 6th, four came to build. 

Rathlin O'Birne. — May 4th, twelve Swallows **of the Martin 
species " ; 16th, six or seven Swallows. 

Blacksod. — June 10th, ten to twenty Swallows ; the first seen. 

Slyne Head, North. — May 17th, nine. 

Slyne Head, South. — June 7th, four. 

Skelligs. — June 2nd, two flying about island. 

Tuskar Rock. — Oct. 4th, two flying about; also on Oct. 14th. 

Innishtr ahull. — Aug. 12th, one *' Black Swallow" (Swift ?),j 

last seen for season. 

Martin. 

Mine Head. — July 4th, six Martins. 
Oyster Island, North. — May 3rd, about fifteen Martins. The] 
breed in the neighboui'hood. 



irish coast. 91 

Cuckoo. 
Mine Head. — May 1st, Cuckoo first heard. 
Rathlin Island. — May 10th, five Cuckoos. 
Arranmore. — May 3rd, two Cuckoos arrived. 
Oyster Island, North. — May 8th, heard first Cuckoo. 

" Kingfisher." 
Black Rock, Mayo. — April 20th to May 1st, one or two 
" Kingfishers " at sunrise. '' When started they make in the 
direction of the Bangor Kiver between Belmullet and BalHna." 

Pigeons. 

Rathlin Island. — June 10th, seven Eock Pigeons. 

Lough Sivilly. — April 6th, some Pigeons. 

Blacksod. — April 8th, sixteen. May 19th, Pigeons 8 a.m. till 
sunset. 

Clare Island. — April 7th, four small flocks going S.E. ; 11th, 
continuous flocks going S. ; 20th, ditto. May 10th, three small 
flocks going N.W. ; 20th, two flocks going W. June 6th and 17th, 
three flocks. 

Dursey Island. — April 14th, fourteen Wild Pigeons going N.E. 
May 15th, twenty Wild Pigeons going N.E. 

Howth Baily. — Dec. 14th, nine flying S. 

Rockabill. — Dec. 13th, nine flying S. 

Rathlin Island. — Dec. 13th, flocks of Pigeons. 

InnishtrahulL — Dec. 10th, flock of eight Pigeons. They 
breed on island. 

Lough Swilly. — Oct. 5th, Pigeons in flocks ; 9th, 12th, 28th, ditto. 
. Clare Island. — Nov. 5th, large flock. Dec. 22nd, ditto. 

Arran Island, North. — Aug. 3rd, four going S. 

Arran Island, South. — Nov. 17th, four. Dec. 6th, thirty. 

Dungarvan. — Dec. 29th, ten '' Woodguests" flying about. 
Jan. 15th, 1883, six flying inland. 

Quail. 
InnishtrahulL — Sept. 11th, one caught. 

Golden and " Grey " Plover. 

Copeland Island. — April 20th to 26th, some flocks seen on 
island ; twelve killed against lantern. 



92 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

South Maidens. — April 10th, three dozen " Plover," 4.30 p.m. 

Innishtmhull. — Seen all the month of February during several 
days, and on May 8th. 

Black Rock, Mayo. — From March 1st to May 20th, Golden 
Plover. These birds never rest here, except when migrating. 

Slyne Head, North. — April 14th, three Plover (? Golden) ; 
one struck the lantern, 2 a.m. 

Galley Head. — Dec. 10th, continuous flocks of '* Grey and 
Golden " Plover, from 50 to 100 in a flock, passing to the south ; 
frost. 

Old Head, Kinsale. — Dec. 7th, some hundreds of Golden 
Plover ; 8th, hundreds of Plover ; 11th, 12th, 13th, 14th, and 
16th, ditto, going south. 

Barrels Rock Light-ship. — Dec. 10th, about sixty Plover 
flying S. 

Kish Bank Light-ship. — Dec. 11th, two flocks going S.W. 

Copeland Island. — Nov. 9th, some flocks of Grey Plover on 
island off and on during the month. 

South Maidens. — Aug. 11th, a flock of Plover. 

Rathlin Island. — Oct. 22nd, sixteen " Grey" Plover remain 
here. Nov. 7th, twenty ; 19th, forty coming from N. Dec. 13th 
and 16th, flocks of Golden Plover. 

Tory Island. — Dec. 10th, " Grey " Plover ; 11th, four Golden 
Plover ; 15th, nine " Grey " Plover. 

Rathlin O'Birne. — Oct. 4th, forty Golden Plover. Dec. 14th, 
thirty. 

Killybegs. — Sept. 23rd, about forty " Grey Plover" remained 
several days. Oct. 8th, fourteen. Dec. 10th, about 100. These 
remained while the frost continued, when they flew inland. 

Broadhaven. — Dec. 2nd, twelve Plover. 

Valentia. — Dec. 8th, fifty Golden Plover ; 19th, twenty 
remained. 

Dursey Island. — Dec. 8th, forty going S.W. ; 9th, large flocks 
of Grey and Golden Plover all day going S.W. ; 12th, ten. 

Dungarvan. — Dec. 15th, some "Grey Plovers." 

Green Plover. 
Rathlin Island. — April 16th, eight remained in vicinity two 
days ; 26th, seven, remained all day. 

Innishtrahull. — March 5th, Lapwing Plover. May 10th, ditto. 



lEISH COAST. 93 

Old Head, Kinsale, — Dec. 7th, hundreds of Green Plover ; 
14th, ditto. 

Howth Baily.—Bec, 10th, two ; 11th, forty flying S.W. ; 12th 
to 18th, several ; frost. 

Rockabill. — Dec. 16th, Green Plover going S. 

Copeland Island. — Nov. 9th, some flocks of Lapwings on island 
during this month. 

Rathlin Island. — Nov. 28th, six. Dec. 2nd, seven ; 10th, 
11th, 13th, and 16th, flocks. 

Innishtr ahull. — Dec. 12th, twelve Lapwings ; first seen this 
season. 

Tory Island. — Oct. 5th, three ; 20th, one. Nov. 5th, one. 

Killybegs. — Oct. 3rd, eight Lapwings. These were in neigh- 
bourhood all the summer. 

Oyster Island, North. — Dec. 1st, twenty-five Lapwings ; 12th, 
ten. 

Slyne Head, North. — Nov. 10th, two. 

Dungarvan. — Nov. 11th, small flocks; 15th, large flocks; 
17th, some ; 30th, very large flocks. Dec. 15th, several. 

Turnstone. 
Dungarvan. — Nov. 11th, eight. 

" Sea Larks." 

Blacksod. — July 12th, twelve Sea Larks. 

Howth Baily. — Jan. 6th, 1883, seven " Sand Larks " on 
strand. 

Rockabill. — Nov. 3rd, " Sand Larks." 

Innishtrahull. — Aug. 12th, six or eight *' Sand Larks," and 
daily during winter. 

Arranmore. — Oct. 20th, one *' Sandpiper." Nov. 4th, one. 

Seapie. 

Rathlin O'Birne. — Umch 13th, four "Sepoys," 4.30 p.m., 
wind strong S.W. ; 26th, six "Sepoys." June 2nd and 10th, 
several " Sepoys." 

Hoivth Baily. — Jan 6th, 1883, flock of eighty to one hundred 
" Sepoys " flying about cliffs. 

Innishtrahull. — Dec. 6th, flock of twelve " Sepoys." 



94 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

Oyster Island, North. — Oct. 9tli, seven remained some time. 
Dec. 31st, several. 

Heron. 

Blacksod. — June 7th, three to five " Cranes." Seldom seen 
here. 

Hoivth Baily. — Dec. 10th, one ; 12th, one. 

Tory Island. — Oct. 8th, one at lake. Dec. 5th, one " Crane." 

Samphire Island. — Oct. 27th, two. Seldom seen here. 

Skelligs. — Dec. 11th, one going. E. 

Dungarvan. — Jan. 16th, 1883, one flying seaward. 

Curlew and Whimbrel. 

Galley Head. — May 8th, flocks of from ten to twenty *' May- 
birds," or Curlew, going N. 

Mine Head. — May 3rd, nine ** May-birds." 

Coningheg Light-ship. — May 6th and 8th, eight to ten " May-j 
birds " flying N.W. 

Rathlin Island. — May 2nd, 5 a.m., ten Curlews; 8th, eight 
Curlews ; 12th, ten May-birds or Curlews. Seen also on June 
3rd, 21st, and 29th going S. 

Innishtr ahull. — March 5th, seen. April, in flocks. May, 
some seen. In June and July, the only birds which visit the 
island, except sea-birds. 

Lough Swilly. — May 16th and 17th, flocks of "Whimbrel 
Curlew." 

Rathlin O'Birne. — March 13th, one Curlew. A few seen on 
March 25th, and from June 2nd to 8th. 

Oyster Island, North. — May 3rd to 7th, fifteen to twenty 
" young Curlews, commonly called May -birds." 

Blacksod. — April 5th, about twenty Curlews going N.W. ; 
April 9th, twelve birds seen ; 18th, several flocks. May 
13th to 22nd, continuous flocks passing inland. A few on July 
5th and 20th. 

Slyne Head, North. — April 11th, flock of Curlews. May 3rd, 
one flock known by the name of *' May-birds" in this locality. 
** They resemble the Cm-lew in form and colour, but not so large ; 
they remain in this locality for two or three months each year, 
and are rarely seen before May." They departed early in July 
this year ; 10th, one flock of Curlews going S. July 21st, flocks 
of Cm'lews. 



IRISH COAST. 95 

Slyne Heady South. — May 17th, nine " May-fowls " flew to 
N.E. ; 30th, five ditto. 

Valentia. — During April frequently, and May 13th, 16th, 
25th. On May 13th the entry is ** young Curlew" (perhaps 
Whimbrel). 

Skelligs. — Jan. 8th, ten Curlews going S. 

Dursey Island, — May 2nd to 7th, Curlews at intervals going 
N.W. 

Old Head, Kinsale. — Dec. 13th, flocks of 200 to 300 Curlews, 
first arrived on this day. 
P Howth Baily. — Dec. 6th, fifteen Curlews ; 10th, thirty ; 12th 
to 18th, several ; frost. Jan. 15th, 1883, large flock. 

Copeland Island. — Sept. 21st, large flocks of Curlews. 

Rathlin Island. — Aug. 3rd, seven Curlews ; 12th, five ; 21st, 
three. Sept. 2nd, seven; 20th, twelve. Oct. 25th, six. Dec. 
7th, eight ; and at intervals to end of month. 

Innishtr ahull. — Aug. 12th, flocks of ten or twelve, and daily 
during winter. 

Dunree Head. — Dec. 11th, great flock of Curlews passed. 

Lough Swilly. — Oct. 5th, Curlews in flocks ; Oct. 9th, 12th, 
Nov. 1st, 30th, Dec. 6th and 14th, ditto. 

Killibegs. — Sept. 5th, about seventy Curlews ; they remained 
until middle of October, some during winter months. 

Oyster Island, North. — Nov. 11th, about fifty; remained on 
island. Seen also on Dec. 12th, 31st; and Jan. 9th to 13th, 
1883. 

Clare Island. — Nov. 3rd, thirty going N. Dec. 22nd, large 
flocks. Jan. 10th, 1883, large flocks. 

Arran Island, North. — Dec. 9th, four ; 16th, seven. 

Straw Island. — Sept. 30th, twenty-five ** young Curlews." 
Nov. 27th. twenty. 

Arran Island, South. — Curlews always on island. 

Samphire Island. — Oct. 11th, three passing inland. 

Valentia. — " Curlews at all times here." 

Skelligs. — Oct. 3rd, six going N. Dec. 19th, eight. 

Dursey Island. — Entries occur in September at frequent 
intervals. Oct. 3rd, 26th, and Dec. 14th and 17th. 

Dungarvan. — Nov. 21st, large flocks. 



96 report on the migration of birds. 

Woodcock. 

Slyne Heady South. — May 7th, two Woodcocks, 11 a.m. None 
struck lantern for last six months. 

Skelligs. — Jan. 19th, two Woodcocks perched on island. 

Old Head, Kinsale. — Nov. 20th, three Woodcocks. Dec. 5th, 
five ; 6th, twenty ; 7th, eighteen ; 8th, ten ; 9th, twenty. 

Howth Baily. — Dec. 6th, one ; 12th, one ; 14th, one. 

Rathlin Island. — Dec. 13th, Woodcocks. 

Arranmore. — Nov. 12th, one. Dec. 10th, four. 

Rathlin O'Birne. — Dec. 17th, one. 

Killyhegs. — Nov. 5th, two killed. Dec. 10th, three (shot two). 

Arran Island, South. — Oct. 26th, three. Nov. 20th, two. 

Skelligs.— Dec. 14th, two. 

Dursey Island. — Dec. 11th, two going S.E. 

Dungarvan. — Dec. 11th, two. 

Snipe. 

Slyne Head, North, — March 12th, 4 a.m., one Snipe killed 
against lantern. 

Sly7ie Head, South. — May 16th, three Snipe, 7 a.m. 

Old Head, Kinsale. — Nov. 4th, ten Snipe. Dec. 6th, thirty; 
9th, sixty Snipe ; 15th, sixty to one hundred. d 

Howth Baily. — Dec. 12th, two. 

Innishtr ahull. — Oct. 6th, one. Nov. 7th, two ; 19th to end of 
month, some frequented island. 

Lough Swilly. — Dec. 14th, two. 

Tory Island. — Oct. 5th, one. Dec. 11th, five. 

Arranmore. — Dec. 10th, 11th, and 16th, a few. 

Rathlin O'Birne. — Dec. 16th, two ; 17th, six. 

Skelligs.— Dec. 15th, four. Jan. 5th, 1883, one ; 8th, two. 

Corn Crake. 
Mine Head. — May 1st, first heard in the night. 
Tuskar Rock. — Aug. 22nd, one Corn. Crake going N.W. The 
third seen here for the last two and a half years. 

Waterhen. 

Old Head, Kinsale, — Deo. i5th, Waterhen seen; plentiful on 
a lake near. 



lEISH COAST. 97 

RockahilL — Dec. 12th, Waterhen. 
Innishtrahidl.—Dee, 16th, one ''Moorhen." 

Coot. 

Old Head, Kiiisale.—Bec. 15th, Coot seen; plentiful on a 
lake near. 

Geese. 

Innishtrahidl. — Feb. 13th, Barnacles in flocks of from twelve 
to twenty, from 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. " These birds passed more or 
less during this month, but particularly on the 13th." 

Rathlin O'Birne. — March 21st, eight Barnacles. Have not 
seen Barnacles at this time of year before. They left next 
morning. 

Oyster Island, North. — Feb. 21st to 26th, large flocks of 
Barnacles, seen between 8 and 10 p.m. Noticed passing against 
the rays of light. They all left the neighbourhood. 

Broadhaven. — April 5th and 16th, Barnacles seen going N. ; 
9th and 15th, Geese going N. 

Hoivth Baily. — Jan. 9th, 1883, thirteen Barnacles or Wild 
Geese flying E. 

Copeland Island. — Dec. 18th, three flocks of Wild Geese 
passed over island, going inland. 

Rathlin Island. — Dec. 18th and 26th, two Wild Geese. 
Innishtrahidl. — Nov. 5th, three Barnacles flying S.E. 
Dunree Head. — Oct. 10th, flock of Barnacles passed up lough; 
20th, great flock of Wild Geese passed. Nov. 7th, Barnacles. 
Dec. 21st, flock of Wild Geese. 

Lough Swilly. — Nov. 2nd, two flocks of Wild Geese going S. 
Tory Island. — Oct. 17th, one Wild Goose. 
Arranmore. — Nov. 12th, one Barnacle. Dec. 8th, one ; 9th, 
thu'ty-two ; 18th, several. 

Rathlin O'Birne. — Nov. 8th, seven Barnacles ; 14tb, four. 
Dec. 10th and 26th, several. 

Killyhegs. — Nov. 13th, nineteen flying S., very high; 16th, 
two flocks flying S. Dec. 4th, seventeen going S. 

Oyster Island, North. — Sept. 21st, twelve Barnacles going S. ; 
26th, thirty going S. Oct. 5th and 8th, several flocks going S. ; 
17th, 20th, 25th, ditto. Nov. 5th, 20th, Dec. 25th, flocks pass- 
ing into harbour. 

Broadhaven.— Deo. 2nd, thirteen Wild Geese. 

o 



98 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

Clare Island. — Oct. 20th, a large flock of Wild Geese going S. 

Slyne Head, North.— Nov. lOtli, seven Barnacles. Dec. 7th, 
fifteen. 

SampJiire Island. — Oct. 7th, Barnacles in large numbers in 
the bay, and continued plentiful up to date of sending schedule, 
Jan. 15th, 1883. 

Dimgarvan.—'^OY. 15th, five Wild Geese; IGth, four going E. 
Dec. 11th, seven. 

Swans. 

Lough Swilly. — " June 1st to 3rd, some Wild Swans on lake 
in neighbourhood ; unusual at this season." 

RatJilin Island. — Nov. 22nd, seven White Swans. *' Remained 
on island some hours till two were shot." 

Kilhjhegs. — Dec. 14th, six Swans flying south at a great 

height. 

Ducks. 

Copeland Island. — March 14th to 28th, Teal and Widgeon 
seen at intervals in small flocks of four to ten, passing over 
station from mainland, going N.E. or towards Scotch coast. 

Broadhaven. — April 5th, five Wild Ducks going N. May 13th, 
two Wild Ducks going N.W. 

Blacksod. — April 8th, eleven. 

Clare Island. — March 3rd, large flock. April 2nd, four large 
flocks ; 14th, two flocks. In these three cases birds going 
S. or S.W. On June 26th, Wild Ducks going N. 

Galley Head. — Nov. 18th, some Ducks "coming to the bogs. 

Old Head, Kinsale. — Dec. 13th, twenty-six Teal Ducks, six 
** Black Ducks," one shot. " These Ducks, I know, are not native 
of this country." 

Barrels Bock Light-sJiij). — Dec. 7th, twenty Wild Ducks flying 
S. ; 10th, flock of thirty Widgeon ditto. 

Tuskar Rock. — Nov. 14th, seven Sheldrakes killed striking. 

Kish Bank Light-ship. — Oct. 7th, a flock of Widgeon" (sup- 
posed) ; 19th, flock of Ducks. Nov. 12th, ditto. Dec. 29th, four 
Ducks. 

Howth Baity. — Oct 29th, eight Wild Ducks. Dec. 12th, 
three. Jan. 14th, 1883, six Widgeon. 

Copeland Island. — Oct. 8th, continuous flocks of Ducks 
passing over island and going inland, three to twelve in each 
flock. 



IRISH COAST. 99 

South Maidens, — Sept. 10th, a flock of Sheldrakes. 

Rathlin Island. — Sept. 25th, two Teals. 

Innishtrahidl. — Sept. 8th, one shot ; 9th, two seen. Oct. 6th, 
Teal, two. Nov. 7th, Wild Duck shot. Dec. 10th, two to four ; 
21st, one. 

Dunree Head. — Nov. 7th, Wild Duck ; 16th, flock of Widgeon. 

Tory Island. — Nov. 7th, Sheldrake shot, wind S., stormy. 
Dec. 9th, one Wild Duck. 

Killyhegs. — Sept. 19th, thirteen Wild Ducks ; remained ahout 
until sending in schedule in January. 

Oyster Island, North. — Oct. 17th, flocks of Widgeon; 25th, 
large flocks. Dec. 18th, large flock. 

Broadhaven. — Nov. 25th, six Wild Ducks. 

Straio Island. — Nov. 25th, forty Ducks. Dec. 5th, twenty- 
five. Jan. 9th, 1883, thirteen. 

Arran Island, South. — Nov. 17th, twenty Wild Ducks. 

Samphire Island. — Oct. 7th, Duck ; 18th, twenty. 

Dungarvan. — Nov. 13th, five ; 18th, fifty. Dec. 11th, Ducks 

and Teal, several ; 24th, several flocks of Teal. Jan: 3rd, 1883, 

thirty Wild Ducks. 

Merganser. 

Dungarvan. — Nov. 18th, three flying into bay ; 28th, ten 
swimming towards land. Dec. 26th, two. 

Northern Diver. 

Skelligs. — June 1st, one Northern Diver in the water. 

Tuskar Rock. — Jan. 11th, 1883, one Northern Diver. The 
"Black Divers " leave here about May 1st, and begin to return 
in October. 

Hoivth Baily. — Dec. 5th, one Northern Diver swimming about; 
14th, ditto. 

Clare Island. — Dec. 27th, three Northern Divers. 

Guillemot. 

Tearaght. — First seen on Feb. 21st. Commence to lay about 
May 20th. 

Skelligs.— Feb. 12th, forty Guillemots going N. March 27th, 
flocks going N. Numbers about island during April, May, and 

June. 

Tearaght.— J2in. 8th and 9th, 1883, about a dozen. 



100 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

Skcllifis. — Aug. 1st, flock departing. Oct. 31st, flock seen 
going S. Nov. 10th, flock fishing. 

Puffin. 

Galley Head. — Continuous flocks on Feb. 27th, March 18th 
and 21st, and from April 10th to 30th, also during May; in all 
cases going W. 

Rathlin O'Birne. — May 14th, continuous flocks ; also on 16th 
and 20th, going N. ; after May 20th to end of month going S. 

Oyster Island ^ North. — March 13th, several flocks of Puffins 
in the bay. May 18th to 24th, several flocks. 

Broadhaven. — June 18th to 20th, flocks of Puffins. A few on 
June 30th and July 12th. 

Eagle Island^ West. — June, large numbers of Puffins. 

Black Rock, Mayo. — From April 20th to Aug. 15th, large 
numbers of Puffins at intervals. 

Blacksod. — April 18th, thirty Puffins. June 16th, eleven 
Puffins going S.E. 

Clare Island. — March 22nd, continuous flocks of Puffins going 
S.W. April 4th, ditto, going S. 

Slyne Head, North. — April 10th, continuous flocks of Puffins 
arrived during day. June 17th, large and continuous flocks of 
Puffins have arrived in vicinity. 

Straw Island. — April 14th, 150 Puffins or Sea Parrot, 5.10 a.m. 

Tearaght. — April 1st, the Puffin arrived, a few only ; 5th, 
they completely covered the island this day. 

Skelligs. — March 23rd, flocks of Puffins about island. Numbers 
around island to end of June (date of sending schedule). 

Coningheg Light-ship. — Nov. 15th, flocks flying S. 

Barrels Bock Light-ship. — Dec. 13th to 16th, continuous flocks 
flying E. and S. 

Hoivth Baily. — Puffins disappeared about middle of December. 

Dunree Head. — Aug. 17th, flocks, 

Killyhegs. — Oct. 30th, 100 to 150 Puffins; they were here 
during the summer and up to this date. 

Shjne Head, North. — A few Puffins at intervals to Nov. 7th. 

Arran Island, North. — Nov. 8th, twenty Puffins. 

Straw Island. — Oct. 23rd, thirty. 

Skelligs. — Aug. 5th, flocks departing. 



irish coast. 101 

Kazorbill. 
Skelligs. — March 28th, flock of Eazorbills ; continued about 
the island during April, May, and June. Aug. 1st, flock depart- 
ing. Jan. 3rd, 1883, flock going S. A few on Jan. 9th and 11th 
fishing. 

Cormorant. 

Black Rockf Mayo. — April 20th to Aug. 15th, two to six 
Cormorants ; they breed on coast. 

Blacksod. — April 27th, Cormorants seen all day. 

Dursey Island. — A few Cormorants seen on April 11th, 27th, 
May 20th, June 22nd. 

Coningheg Lightship. — Nov. 9th, two Cormorants remained 
around ship. 

Innishtr ahull. — Nov. 5th, Cormorants to be seen frequently ; 
they breed on a rock near the mainland called the Stark. 

Tory Island. — Dec. 10th, four Cormorants. 

Arr an Island f North. — A few seen ab intervals; last entry, 
Oct. 2nd. 

Straw Island. — Dec. 22nd, eleven. 

Samphire Island. — Oct. 19th, four. 

Valentia. — At intervals during October and November resting 
on rock. 

Gannet. 

Galley Head. — Continuous flocks are noted on the following 
dates :— Feb. 27th, March 5th to 13th, 21st, April 10th to 30th, 
and in June. In every instance where the direction of flight is 
entered, they were going W. 

Arklow Banky South. — Small flocks, two to twelve birds in 
each, are noted as frequently passing from April 1st to June 7th, 
going in various directions, generally N.E. 

Kish Light-ship. — May 5th, one seen ; 14th, two seen. 

Copeland Island. — Flocks between April 1st and 16th, two to 
twenty birds in each, pass daily, all going N. 

Rathlin Island. — Flocks at intervals between April 6th and 
June 28th ; most numerous in the end of May and June. 
Direction of flight either E. or W. 

Lough Sivilly. — Flocks at intervals between April 29th and 
July 18th ; most in July. 

Arranmore, — Passing in June and July. 



102 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

Rathlin O'Birne. — At intervals from March 17th to July; 
generally in small flocks of six to eight birds. 

Oyster Island, North. — A few Gannets seen on March 6th, and 
between May 18th and 24th a large number of "both white and 
dark-coloured " (old and young) were seen in bay. 

BroadJiaven. — At intervals between April 9th and end of 
July, generally ten to twelve in a flock. Most frequently in June 
and July. Direction of flight variable. 

Eagle Island, West. — In March five or six flocks of Gannets 
coming from S. In May, June, and July, numbers in the 
vicinity. 

Eagle Island, East. — Here the only birds seen were Gannets, 
which passed daily during April and May every quarter or half- 
hour. 

Black Rock, Mayo. — Flocks from April 1st to June 1st. 

Blacksod. — April 17th, five Gannets. Seldom seen at this 
station. 

Clare Island. — Flocks noted on March 1st, and on June 11th. 

Slyne Head, North. — Seen on May 8th and June 3rd ; large 
flocks, also on April 4th and 9th. 

Slyne Head, South. — July 10th, continuous flocks of Gannets. 

Arran Island, North. — May 6th to 13th, flocks of Gannets 
appeared going S. 

Straw Island. — April 28th, five Gannets. 

Valentia. — Seen April 1st, May 27th, and at intervals in June. 

Skelligs. — Constantly seen in the neighbourhood, the Lesser 
Skellig being the only Irish breeding- station. 

Dursey Head. — At intervals during April, a few birds. Large 
flocks on May 8th. Several birds on May 18th and July 10th. 

Old Head, Kinsale. — Sept. 20th, twenty Gannets. On Jan. 
11th, 1883, *' Gannets continue to pass South." 

Coningheg Light-ship. — Four or five at intervals between Nov. 
21st and Dec. 12th. 

Barrels Rock Light-ship. — During the month of November 
great numbers of Gannets feeding about the' ship. Flocks noted 
on Dec. 3rd, 4th, and 5th, and five seen on 20th. 

Tuskar Rock. — "At any time of the year that fish are about 
the rock Gannets are here." 

Kish Bank Light-ship.— k few on Oct. 18th and 23rd, going S. 

Copeland Island. — Gannets each day in vicinity during Sep- 
tember, after fish. 



IKISH COAST. 103 

RatJilin Island. — Flocks of Gannets frequently during August, 
September, and October. 

I7i7iishtr ahull. — Gannets generally in summer months. 

Dunree Head. — Sept. 4th, great numbers passed into Lough 
Swilly ; 18th, passed out of Lough. 

Lough Sicilly. — Oct. 2nd and 4th, a number of Gannets in 
vicinity ; 16th, ditto, old and young birds. 

Tory Island, — Oct. 12th, continuous flocks from E. to W. 
A few birds seen on Oct. 21st and Nov. 9th. 

Rathlin O'Birne. — Oct. 20th, continuous flocks going S. : 
22nd, hovering about all day. 

Killyhegs. — Oct. 16th to 18th, rush of Gannets and Gulls : 
they remained until middle of November, when they departed, 
taking a south-westerly course. 

Eagle Island, West. — October, large numbers of Gannets 
flying to the south. November, very few Gannets. December, 
Gannets have all disappeared. 

Slyne Head, North. — At intervals during August, September, 
October, November, and December. 

Arran Island, North. — From August to Nov. 20th, a few birds 
occasionally. 

Straw Island. — Noted on Sept. 8th and Oct. 20th. Gannets 
remained in vicinity of lighthouse longer than is usual. 

Tearaght. — To be seen daily in vicinity. 

Skelligs. — Observed almost daily during September and Oc- 
tober ; continuous flocks from 25th to 31st of latter month. A 
few in November, December, and January. 

Dursey Island. — A few during September and October. 

Tern. 

Copeland Island. — May 18th, the " Sea Tern or Perr " arrived 
in large flocks on this date to breed, and continued arriving up 
to June 1st. There are some thousands of these birds on Mew 
Island, which is only forty yards from Copeland ; the hen bird 
sits three weeks on four eggs ; the eggs are sometimes laid on 
the bare rock. 

Rathlin O'Birne. — June 2nd, seven or eight Terns ; they bred 
on an island near this. 

Oyster Island, North. — April 9th to 12th, several Terns or 
Sea Swallows to be seen in bay. 



104 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

Blacksod, — May 9tb, five Sea Swallows going S. ; 22nd, 
twenty Sea Swallows. — June 22nd, six. 

Slyne Head, South. — June 4th, flocks of ** small Sea Gulls 
with forked tails " arrived ; they did not breed this year as usual. 

Co2)eland Island. — Sept. 10th, large flock of Terns numbering 
some 400 left Mew Island, going N. 

Gulls. 

Galley Head. — March 1st, coming to breed; 21st, continuous 
flocks of small Gulls ; also during April and May. 

Mine Head. — July 25th, fifty *' Marsh Gulls " remained all day. 

Rathlin Island. — Large flocks of Gulls noticed frequently, 
during May and June especially. 

Lough Swilli). — April 1st to 10th, Gulls in great numbers. 
May 11th and 14th, three or four "Boatswain Gulls." June 
20th, Gulls in great numbers. 

Rathlin O'Birne. — Large flocks of Gulls during months of 
April, May, and June, at intervals ; they build on an island near 
this. 

Oyster Island, North. — April 10th to 12th, large flocks of 
Gulls. May 18th to 24th, several flocks. 

Broadhaven. — April 15th, 26th ; May 8th, 13th to 19th ; June 
5th and 17th ; Skua Gulls observed ; and at frequent intervals 
to date of sending schedules. 

Eagle Island, PF^s^.— January and February, a few Sea Gulls. 
May and June, large numbers. 

Blackrock, Mayo. — March 1st to May 1st, two to four **Eoyal 
Gulls " at intervals ; small flocks of Kittiwakes and large flocks 
of *' Small Gulls or Wheelons " also at intervals. During April 
and May one or two ''North American or Cream-coloured Gulls." 
I never see more than one or tjvo of these birds. 

Blacksod. — May 3rd, flock of large Grey Gulls all day ; 7th, 
six Eoyal Gulls going N.E. April 1st to June 1st, flocks of 
small white Sea Gulls seen. 

Slyne Head, North. — March 28th, larg^ and continuous flocks 
of Sea Gulls going in a southerly direction. 

Slyne Head, South. — July 10th, continuous flocks of Skua 
Gulls and some Eoyal Gulls after fish. 

Arran Island, North. — Gulls frequent during May and June, 
generally going towards the large Island of Arran, where they 



I 



IRISH COAST. 105 

breed. I am informed they arrive in April and leave early in 
August. 

Valentia. — April 18th to end of May, at intervals ; on many 
days no bird is seen. From June 1st to 23rd, on rare occasions. 

Skelligs. — Feb. 2nd, twenty Common Gulls going N. March 
22nd, flocks of Kittiwakes ; 31st, ditto. During April and May 
flocks of Kittiwakes constantly about island. June, ditto. 

Dursey Island. — Large flocks of Gulls seen frequently during 
April, May, and June. 

Galley Head. — Nov. 1st, the Large White and also the 
Gre3^-backed Gulls that hatched here have left. 

Old Head, Kinsale. — Sea Gulls to be seen here all the year 
round. 

Coningheg Light-ship. — Nov. 12th, large flocks of Grey Gulls 
remained around ship. Nov. 29th and Dec. 12th, flocks. 

Barrels Rock Light-ship. — During November, great numbers 
of Gulls. 

Rathlin Island. — Sept. 4th, " I may pass no remark on Gulls 
or Gannets ; they are here lying on the water or after fry I may 
say every day." Nov. 24th and 26th, thousands of Skua Gulls 
on the sea. 

Dunree Head. — Aug. 10th to 17th, flocks of Gulls. 

Lough Sioilly. — Oct. 16th, several flocks of Gulls ; 21st, great 
numbers. Nov. 1st, Gulls in great numbers. Dec. 7th, a number. 

Tory Island. — Nov. 9th, continuously in pairs. Dec. 11th, 
frequently. 

Rathlin O'Birne. — Oct. 10th, continuous flocks. Oct. 28th, 
Nov. 2nd, and to end of month, large flocks at intervals. 

Killyhegs. — Oct. 16th to 18th, rush of Herring Gulls, and 
several Black-headed and "Grey Gulls" after fry; remained 
until middle of November, when all departed going S.W., except 
the Black-headed and Grey Gulls, which remained. 

Broadhaven, — The Sea Gull is to be seen every day at this 
station. 

Slyne Head, North. — Gulls to be seen at all times. 

Arran Island, North. — Gulls at frequent intervals in August, 
September, and October. Fewer entries in November and De- 
cember. 

Straiv Island. — Gulls noted in September and October. 
Jan. 3rd, 1883, twenty-two Black-headed Gulls. 

p 



\ 



106 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

Skelligs. — Aug. 26tb, flocks of Kittiwakes departing. During 
September and October ahnost daily, fisbing up to Dec. 6tb. 
No entry of Kittiwakes afterwards, but a few " Gulls " entered at 
intervals. 

Diirseij Island. — Aug. 28tb, large flocks. A few in September 
and October. 

Duufiarvan. — Nov. 22nd, "immense number of Gulls." Jan. 
9tb, 1883, ''great number of small Gulls"; 12tb, one Gull of 
"a uniform drab colour, very seldom seen in tbis locality." 

Manx Shearwater. 

Skelligs. — April 5tb, 10 p.m., wind N.E., clear, flocks of 
Manx Shearwaters ; tbese birds only appear at night ; remained 
about island during May and June. Nov. 6th, about twenty 
fishing. 

Barrels Rock Lightship. — Dec. 3rd, continuous flocks of 
''Mackerel Cocks" flying W. [Manx Shearwaters?] ; also on 4th 
and 5th; from 19th to 24th, several, generally going E. 

Stormy Petrel. 

Skelligs. — June 2nd, flock flying about light, 11 p.m. 

Coningheg Light-ship. — Nov. 8th, three Stormy Petrels re^ 
mained near ship all day. 

Kish Bank Light-ship. — June 5th, 1882, two Stormy Petrels 
about the ship all day. 

Tory Island. — Oct. 19th, one Petrel killed against lantern. 

Valentia. — Oct. 1st, two struck lantern, not killed; caught on 
balcony after striking, wind strong S.W. Dec. 4th, one taken on 
balcony, wind very strong. 

Skelligs. — Oct. 8th, caught two outside lantern. 



WEST, NEW3L\N AND CO., PRINTERS, 54, HATTON GARDEN, LONDON, E.C. 



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